• Describe some metallurgical operations.
  • Make a list of raw materials for Solvay process.
  • Outline the basic reactions in Solvay Process
  • Develop a flow sheet chart for Solvay process.
  • Describe the composition of Urea.
  • Develop a flow sheet diagram for the manufacturing of Urea.
  • List the uses of Urea.
  • Define petroleum.
  • Describe the formation of Petroleum and Natural gas.
  • Describe the composition of Petroleum
  • Describe briefly the fractional distillation of Petroleum.

In grade VI you learned about metals and how important metals are in our life…? Most of our kitchen utensils, parts of the sewing machine, washing machine, parts of our car, electrical cables, etc. are made of metals. Think what will happen if the base of our iron is made of plastic instead of metal…? Your mother asks you to bring dhobi soda or washing soda when she plans for her scheduled washing… Do you know the chemical name of dhobi soda…? We put fertilizer in our fields, gardens, and flower pots…? Think what will happen if we don’t put fertilizer to these…? Have you ever thought of how we get diesel, petrol, etc., for running our vehicles? Wherefrom we get natural gas (Sui gas) and kerosene oil for our kitchen stoves and our factories etc.? What is coal tar? Wherefrom it comes? In this era of high technology, all of us depend too much on plastic items…? Did you ever try to know what these things are?  What is the source of these things? In this chapter, you will learn about how metals are extracted from their ores? How sodium carbonate or dhobi soda and sodium bicarbonate or baking soda are manufactured. How urea is manufactured and what are its important uses? What is petroleum?

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