- Nouns in singular form but used as plural (don’t take S or Es)
Vermin, police, mankind, public, Sheep, cattle, clergy, peasantry, fish, deer, poor, people, hair, swine, issue, vacation, poetry, infantry, cavalry, machinery, scenery, stationary, furniture, bunting, offspring etc.
- Nouns in plural form but used as singular (always take S or Es)
- Branches of learning: mathematics, statistics, civics, politics, physics etc
- Games and sports: billiards, gymnasiums, athletics
- Diseases: mumps, measles
- Wearings: trousers, pants, shorts, stockings, stocks, shoes
- Instruments: scissors, apparatus, spectacles, glasses, fetters, gallows
- Other Nouns: alms, news, orders, wages, studies, assets, ornaments, arms, tongs, aches, drawers, riches, thanks, savings, shares, premises, quarters, cards, summons, means, species, series, innings, amends, corps, proceedings, surroundings, eatables, movables, valuables, odds and ends, make friends, take pains, the United Nations. The united states, repairs,
Note: wages when used as a reward should be plural. Wages of sin is hell. Wages are paid.
3. Nouns with some numerical Quantity don’t take S/ES with them.
Dozen, score, hundred, thousand, million, year, head, pair, yoke, stone, foot, meter e.g.two hundred people, three dozen eggs, four score oranges, three pair of socks, twenty head o cattle, etc
4. Collective nouns should be singular when acting as unit other wise plural
The jury were unanimous in their opinion.
The jury was unanimous in its opinion.
5. Abstract and material nouns are not used as plural.
e.g. a bag of rice, ten grains of rice, a piece of advice, many pieces of advice, many words of abuse, many acts of mischief, items of furniture, bits of news/information
6. Apostrophe and S are used to show possession of persons. For lifeless things OF is used. Nouns already with S only take aphostrphe.
Ali’s leg, leg of chair, Chips’ doctor
7. When singular Noun ends S or CE followed by sake only take Apostrophe
For conscience’ sake, for goodness’ sake, for justice’ sake etc HoweverFor heaven’s sake, For God’s sake
- Personified objects: freedom’s call, fortune’\s smile, country’sdmands etc
- Nouns denoting time, space, weight, length etc e.g. at arm’s length, at stone’s throw
8. Plural Compound Nouns:
Plural nouns are formed by adding S to the principal word.
Brothers/sons/daughters in law, commanders in chief, passers by, major Generals