12-RUBAIYAT

  1. Who was Abraham?

         Hazrat Abraham was the prophet of Allah. He had a great love for Allah and had a firm and strong faith in Him. He was thrown in the fire but Allah saved him.

  1. What is worse than slavery?

         According to Allama Iqbal, to have no faith is worse than slavery because in absence of faith we will run after our emotions and abject feelings. So faith plays a role of vital importance in leading a contented life.

  1. Who cannot compete with the civilization of Makkah?
  2.          The Europeans cannot compete with the civilization of Makkah because they do not have spiritual faith and unity.
  1. What has made the efforts of the Muslims fruitless?[ 2007,

         The efforts of the Muslims have been fruitless because the Muslims do not follow the Islamic principles and have not to love for humanity.

  1. What is the moral lesson/theme/main idea of the poem? What do you learn after reading this poem?

         Allama Iqbal is trying to show the path of enlightenment to the Muslims. He says that Muslims should love Allah and His Holy Prophet (SAW) wholeheartedly. It also gives the lesson of harmony among the Muslims. Islam is a unique religion that assures us material and spiritual success. However, Muslims have no faith in their own culture and civilization and are running after the modern fake civilizations blindly.

  1. What is the present state of the Muslims as given in the last stanza of the poem? Or What are the causes of the downfall of Muslims?[2007,

         The present state of the Muslims is not enviable. They have become materialistic. They have no love for their religion. They follow modern civilization as a matter of honor and dignity. Their prayers are fruitless because they have no unity and true spirit of Islam. They have lost the true spirit of Islam.

  1. Why do the Muslims run after modern civilization?

         The Muslims run after modern civilization because it has great charm and attraction for the people in respect of material success.

  1. How is Islam better than the modern/European civilization?

         Islam is better than the modern/European civilization because it can guide us in every walk of life. Islam is a unique religion that assures us material and spiritual success.

Reference to the Context

REFERENCE:

These lines have been taken from the poem “Ruba’iyat” written by Allama Muhammad Iqbal.

CONTEXT:

Allama Iqbal is trying to show the path of enlightenment to the Muslims. He says that Muslims should love Allah and His Holy Prophet (SAW) wholeheartedly. It also gives the lesson of harmony among the Muslims. However, they have no faith in their own culture and civilization and are running after the modern fake civilizations blindly.

EXPLANATION:

Stanza-1

In these lines, the poet says that the Muslims should have faith like that of Hazrat Abraham (AS) who jumped into the fire in the love of Allah and refused to give up his faith. He was the true lover of Allah. Muslims should have faith in their own culture and tradition. To have no faith is worse than slavery so the Muslims should have faith in Allah. The Muslims whom the civilization and culture of Europe captivates a lot should know if they follow it, they will make themselves slaves of Europe.

Stanza-2

In these lines the poet says that Islam is the binding force among the Muslim. It brings harmony among them. Islam is found all over the world. All the Muslims of the world are a nation because their philosophy of life is the same that is the oneness of Allah, the last prophet Muhammad (SAW), and the hereafter. The European countries have no such philosophy of life. The modern civilization of Europe has no true faith like that of Islam. They guide for material progress instead of spiritual progress. Islam is a unique religion that assures us material and spiritual success.

Stanza-3

      In these lines, the poet describes the present condition of the Muslims. The poet says the present state of the Muslims is not enviable. They have become materialistic. They have no love for their religion. They follow modern civilization as a matter of honor and dignity. Their prayers are fruitless, their ranks are broken, their hearts are confused and their feelings for Islam are just eyewash. It is all because they have no unity and true spirit of Islam. They have lost the true spirit of Islam.

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