Chapter-1: Ideology of Pakistan

Q5. Write a comprehensive note on Two Nation Theory?

Ans. The social or political Programme of any movement that becomes a collective objective of any nation is called Ideology. OR
Ideology means such an aim according to which human beings planned about their future.

In the historical perspective of the sub-continent Two Nation Theory means that despite living together in the same country, the Hindus and the Muslims are two separate nations. Though the Muslims and the Hindus both have been
living together for centuries, yet they could not merge with each other.

The history of the two-nation theory is as old as the history of man. According to
the holy Quran, the concept of one nation was produced before Adam. Quran says:
“We Said: Go down, all of you from here; but verily there cometh unto you from Me a guidance; and who so follow My guidance, there shall no fear come upon them neither shall they grieve. But they who disbelieve and deny Our revelations, such are rightful owners of the fire. They will be therein.”

Islam and Two Nation Theory:
Islam has a different character and temperament. The concept of Two Nations was given by Islam 14 hundred years ago. According to Islam, there are onlytwo nations in the world; Believers and Nonbelievers.

In the subcontinent Two Nation Theory is as old as the history of the Muslims. Two nations theory had been formed in India when Raja Samri of Katanga  oor accepted Islam because Hindus and Muslims of India belonged to the  ame race. They were living in geographically connected areas. They were the citizens of one country. There was no huge difference between their customs. In spite of all these common things, religious fervor had provided them such a strong base for nationalism which altogether made the Muslims and everything different from Hindus. It is clear from the words of the Quaid-e-Azam:
“Pakistan was created on the very first day when first Hindu accepted Islam in India”
1. Hazrat Mujadid Alf Sani & Two Nation Theory
Hazrat Mujaddad Alf Sani explained the Two-Nation Theory in 16th and 17th
“If Muslims want to live like a live nation then they will have to get rid of all those paganism. They will have to live separately from Hindus. If this  consciousness of separate nationalism is not
produced among the Muslims then the fear is that they would be swept away in the flood of one-nationhood.”

  1. Hazrat Shah Wali Ullah & Two Nation Theory:
    Shah Wali Ullah was also a great supporter of the two-nation theory. He saved the
    Muslims of the sub-continent at that time when the Muslims decline was started after the death of Aurangzeb Alamgir in 1707. He advised the Muslims to be united and followed the Islamic rules & regulations. He also advised Muslims to give up Hindu and Un-Islamic values. He considered that the Muslims are separate nation from Hindus.
  2. Sir Syed Ahmed and Two Nation Theory:
    Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was the first Indian Muslim political leader who used the word “Nation” for the Muslims of the sub-continent in 1867. During the
    Urdu Hindi Controversy he came forward with the two-nation concept and declared that the Muslims were a separate nation, having their own culture
    and civilization. He talked to Mr. Shakespeare, Governor of Banaras and
    explained the two-nation theory as:
    “Hindi Urdu conflict is the starting of the space of separation between Hindus and Muslims which will gradually increase and a day will come when both the nations will separate from each other after division.”

4 Allama Iqbal and Two Nation Theory:
Allama Iqbal awakened the Muslims of sub-continent with his poetry to demand a separate homeland. He led the Muslims at every step and rendered
great services for the establishment of Pakistan. Allama Iqbal considered Islam as a complete code of life. He said that he was fully convinced that the

5 Quaid-e-Azam and Two Nation Theory:
The Quaid-e-Azam was a big supporter of two-nation theory. He said,
“The foundation of Two Nation Theory was laid on the day
when the first non-Muslim of sub-continent became
This two-nation theory was originated with the arrival of the Muslims in the
sub-continent. He said:
“India is neither a country nor its inhabitants are a nation. This is a
sub-continent where many nations live; among these the Hindu and
the Muslim are two important nations”.

John Bright and Two Nation Theory:
On 24th June, 1858 John Bright gave the concept of a separate state for the
Muslims of the sub-continent.
7 Syed Jamal Ud Din Afghani and Two Nation Theory:
In 1879 Maulana Jamal-ud-Din Afghani gave the concept of Two Nations in
the sub-continent.
8 Molana Abdul Haleem Sharar and Two Nation Theory:
In 1890 Maulana Abdul Haleem gave the concept of the Two Nation Theory.

Walait Ali Bambook and Two Nation Theory:
In 1913 Walait Ali Bambook presented the Two Nation Theory.

10 Molana Ashraf Ali Thanvi and Two Nation Theory:
In 1928, on the basis of separate identity, Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi
talked about separate state of the Muslims
11 Murtaza Makesh and Two Nation Theory:
In 1928, on the basis of separate identity, Murtaza Makesh talked about
separate state of the Muslims.
12 Chaudhry Rehmat Ali and Two Nation Theory:
Chaudhry Rehmat Ali in 1933 suggested the name of Pakistan on the base of
Two Nation Theory, while he was a student of the Cambridge University of

9 Walait Ali Bambook and Two Nation Theory:
In 1913 Walait Ali Bambook presented the Two Nation Theory. Importance of Two Nation Theory:
The entire freedom movement revolves around Two Nation Theory which
became the basis of demand for Pakistan. It means that the Muslim of the
sub-continent were a separate nation with their distinct culture, civilization,
literature, history, religion and social values. Islam, the religion of the Muslims
was based on the concept of Tauheed and therefore could not be merged in
any other system of religion

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