Q3. Explain the Ideology of Pakistan in the light of the sayings of Allama Iqbal?
Ans. The social or political Programme of any movement that becomes a collective objective of any nation is called Ideology. OR
Ideology means such an aim according to which human beings planned about their future.
The Ideology of Pakistan
The Ideology of Pakistan was the consciousness of the Muslims in the historical perspective of the South Asian sub-continent that they were a separate nation based on the Islamic ideology. No doubt Islamic ideology is the base of the ideology of Pakistan so the fundamentals of Islam are also the bases of the Ideology of Pakistan.
The ideology of Pakistan & Different Scholars
The ideology of Pakistan is defined by the different scholars as: –
1. Syed Ali Abbas
Syed Ali Abbas former professor of history defined the ideology of Pakistan as.
“Ideology of Pakistan and the Ideology of Islam have the same meaning. The ideology of Pakistan is the practical shape of the teachings of Islam.”
2. Dr. Aslam Syed
Dr. Aslam Syed defined the ideology of Pakistan as.
“Ideology of Pakistan is the name of molding of individual and collective lives according to Islam and also of saving form conflicting ideologies.”
3. Allama Allaud-Din-Siddiqui
A well-known scholar Allama Allaud-Din-Siddiqui defined the ideology of Pakistan as.
“Ideology of Pakistan is the name of implementation of Islamic principles on persons. On groups, & on government and Islam should be stronger than the strongest forces here”.
Allama Iqbal & Ideology of Pakistan
Allama Iqbal was the person who for the first time gave the concept of a separate state for the Muslims keeping in view the Two-Nation Theory. He clearly explained the Ideology of Pakistan in his sayings and poetry. Aflame Iqbal and Ideology of Pakistan:
1. Separate Recognition of Muslims:
Allama Iqbal made it clear that Muslims have separate recognition from the Hindus on the base of religion and culture. In this regard, he said“India is not a country, it is a Sub-continent of human beings belonging to different languages and practicing different religions. Muslim nation has its own religious and cultural identity.”
2. Condemnation of Western Democratic Concepts:
Allama Iqbal was strongly against the western concept of Democracy. Despite flourishing all over the world, this system cannot provide solutions to the problem of the Islamic world. Iqbal was of the view that all social and political
problems can be solved with the help of the Islamic system. He said, (Western democracy is devoid of depth, it has merely an attractive outlook.)
3. Concept of separate Muslim State:
Dr. Muhammad Allama Iqbal was a great supporter and preacher of a separate Muslim state. He gave this idea of a separate state for the Muslims in 1930while addressing the annual meeting of All India Muslim League in Allah Abad,
“I want to see the Punjab, NWFP, Sindh, and Balochistan in the form of one homogenous state. Whether India gets
independence under the crown of England or out of it, I think the independent state of western provinces is the destiny of the people living there.”
4. Commendation of Idea of Single Nation:
In March 1909 when Iqbal was asked to address a meeting held by MinvraRaj Amritsar but he refused to address that meeting & said.
“I remained the supporter of this idea but now I am of the view that the preservation of separate nationhood is useful for Hindus and Muslims birth. To have the concept of a single nation in India is no doubt poetic and beautiful but impractical regarding present circumstances.”
5. Concept of Two Nation Theory:
Allama Iqbal explaining the two-nation theory as:
“Despite living together for 1000 years, Hindus and Muslims have their ideologies so the only solution of political conflict in India is to have a separate independent parliament for each nation.”
6. Eradication of Racial & Regional Prejudices:
Allama Iqbal rejected the Racial & Regional Prejudices. Once he said in this regard as:
“Concept of nation and homeland is confusing the Muslims. Thatis why Islamic humane objects are becoming dim. It is also possible that these concepts may destroy the real concepts of Islam.”
7. Explanation of Relation of Islam & politics:
Allam Iqbal was in the favour of the basic concept that politics is a part of religion(Islam) and Islam provides complete guidance about it, “Islam does not consider matter and soul separate from each other. Allah, Universe, and state all are the basic elements of a single unit. Manis not so alien that he should leave worldly affairs for the sake of religion.”
8. Islam is a complete code of life
In the annual meeting of Muslim League on December 29, 1930, at Allahabad, he said,
“Islam is not the name of some beliefs and customs but it is a compete for code of life. In, Europe, religion is everyone’s matter which divides the human oneness into two opposite parts i.e. body and soul. In contrast to that in Islam, God, Universe, soul, matter, sate and religious are bound to each other or in other words Muslims are one
9. Islam is a lively power
In his Allahabad address he said:
“Islam is a lively power which frees the human mind from thoughts country and race. If we understand this thing then we can be the leaders of prominent Indian civilization.”
10. Islam is the way to success
Allama Iqbal said concerning Islam:
“The lesson which I learned from history is that Islam always helped the Muslims. Even today, the Ideology of Islam can save you being from destruction by uniting your divided powers”.
11. No other ideology of life than Islam
On the publication of his poem, “Khazar-e-Rah” people started to call Allama Iqbal as a communist. He rejected this balance firstly in his essay and then in a letter to All-e-Ahmed Sarwar in 1937. He said: “To me, capitalism, communism and other isms of this world have no importance. Islam is the only reality which is the reason for salvation. To have a contract with any other ism is just like to be out of Islam.”
12. Opposition of Nationalism
He described the reason for the opposition of nationalism in the words:
“I am opposed to nationalism, not because if it is allowed to develop in India. It is likely to bring less material gain to Muslims. I’m opposed to it because I see in it the germs of atheistic materialism which I look upon as the greatest danger to modern humanity”
13. Separate Existence of Muslims
The fact is that even the enemies acknowledge that it was Iqbal who made the idea of a distinct Muslim Nationhood crystal clear in the minds of the masses. A bigoted Hindu leader Madan Mohan Malviya once remarked.“Before Iqbal, we had not the slightest idea that the Muslimspossessed a separate existence in India. We regarded them to be a part of a common nationalism”
14. Foundation of Pakistan
Allama Iqbal not only put forward the proposal of Pakistan‟s creation by uniting the Muslim majority provinces of north-western India but he also explicitly pointed out the foundations on which this state was to be established and was to function. He said:
“To address this session of All India Muslim League you have selected a man who has not despaired of Islam as a living force for reeing the outlook of man from its geographical limitations, who believes that religion is a power of utmost importance in the life of an individual as well as states.”
15. Unity of the Muslim World
Allama Iqbal was a great supporter of Muslim Unity. He gave the message to the Nation of unity, equality, fraternity & tolerance. He also declared that there is no concept of discrimination on the base of color, caste, and creed in Islam. The message of unity of the Muslim World can be seen in his poetry as.
ایک ہوں هسلن حرم کی پاسبانی کے لیے
نیل کے ساحل سے لے کے تا بخاک کاشغر
16. Geographical Limitations of Mankind
According to Allama Iqbal, Islam is a practical way to eliminate the artificial distinctions of race and nation and to transcend beyond the geographical limitations of mankind. He wanted to established Muslim nationality on ideological lines: Allama Iqbal categorically stated that the Hindus and the Muslims can‟t live together in one state and that the Muslims would succeed in making their separate state sooner or later. He advocated the separate nationhood of Muslims. Declaring Islam a complete code of life Allama Iqbal in the annual session of All India Muslim League at Allahabad in 1930, demanded a Muslim state in the North West of the sub-continent.