1. The New Constitution

 

Q.1.     Describe the feelings and hatred of the native people towards the British. Or            

“The New Constitution” is a criticism of the Indian political and social scene before independence. Discuss.

Or       Describe the feelings of hatred against the British Imperialism.

Or       Why did Ustad Mangu hate the British? 2003

Or       Why did Ustad Mangu call the English’ white mice’? 1999

 

‘The New Constitution” is a criticism of the British imperialism. It reflects the social, political and economic life of the Indians. The British victimized the natives. They missed no chance of insulting and disgracing them. They did not allow them even the basic human rights. They always suppressed them.

Mangu was a representative of the Indians. He hated the British rule. He often said, “Look at them, came to the house to fetch a candle and before you knew, they had taken it over. I can’t stand the sight of them, these human monkeys. The way they order you around as if one was their father’s slave.” After a quarrel with the gora soldier, he often remained depressed and dejected.

The Hindus and the Muslims had strained relations. The Muslims were very poor. The Hindus exploited them. They had full control over the business and industry of India. They were supported by the British. There was no economic, political or social equality in the society. The British lived the life of luxury while Muslims lived in utter poverty. Hence, Mangu was justified in his hatred against the British and the Hindus. 191

 

Q.2.     What was the new constitution? What were the expectations of the Indians and especially of Ustad Mangu. 1995

Or       What was the New Constitution? What could it change if enforced?

 

The story “The New Constitution” has been written with reference to the Government of India Act 1935 which was going to be promulgated on 1st April 1935. The Indians thought that it would bring justice, equality and prosperity to them. Their rights would be recognized and accepted. Racialism and bigotry of the British would come to an end and they would be treated as human beings.

Ustad Mangu was a tonga wala. He was considered a man of wisdom among his friends. He was uneducated and unlettered but he possessed great political insight. He hated the British rule. One day, he picked two fares from the district courts. He heard from them that India Act was going to be enforced on 1st’ April. He hoped that it would change their destiny. They would get freedom from the slavery of the British. They would get jobs. Their human rights would be recognized. They would be treated equal to the British. He thought of many good things that lay in future. He felt excited and thrilled. He said to himself, “The new constitution is going to be like boiling hot water which will destroy these bugs who suck the blood of the poor” He further said, “The new constitution will make these white mice once and for all, back into their miserable holes.” The new constitution was enforced on 1st April. But it brought no change in the social, political, economic and religious sphere of the life of the Indians. All of their hopes and expectations remained unfulfilled. 256

 

 

Q.4.     Do you think that the expectations and hopes of Ustad Mangu about the India Act 1935 came true?

Or       How was Ustad Mangu disillusioned on 1st April?

Or       What were the feelings of Ustad Mangu on 1st April?

Or       Mangu wanted to see the constitution brought out with the same razzle dazzle. 2002

 

On 1st April, Ustad Mangu got up early, decorated his tonga and came on the road. He was very excited and happy. He wanted to witness the new constitution with his open eyes. Mangu wanted to see the constitution brought out with the same razzle dazzle. He thought of many good things that lay in future. He felt excited and thrilled. He thought that it would come like a procession. He went round the streets and bazaars. There was no colour, no light. Nothing was new. People moved about as usual. He saw the students of Government College all dressed in shabby clothes.

He went to the cantonment. There he picked up a gora soldier. He was the same man that had beaten him a year before. He wanted to go to the dancing girls’ bazar. Mangu demanded five rupees as fare. The soldier beat him with a stick. Mangu also hit him in his chin. Then he beat him with blows mercilessly. He was arrested. He cried, “The New Constitution, The New Constitution”. He was told that there was no new constitution. The new constitution was enforced on 1st April. But it brought no change in the social, political, economic and religious sphere of the life of the Indians. All of his hopes and expectations did not come true. He was bitterly disillusioned when he was locked up in the jail.232

 

Q.2.     Write a character sketch of Ustad Mangu.2002

 

Ustad Mangu is a representative of the Indians. He is the central character in the story. He is illiterate and uneducated but he is considered a man of wisdom by his friends. He is very popular with his fellows. He shares every good or bad news with them. He is interested in the political situation of India. He hears of the India Act 1935 and breaks this news to his friends. Now he is very self-possessed. He is the supporter of the equal human rights to every body in India. He sees the fulfillment of his dreams in the Government of India Act 1935.

He hates the British. His hatred for the white rulers reflects the general hatred. It was this hatred that eventually leads to the exit of the white rulers. He thinks that they are ruling over India against the will of the Indians. He calls them lepers and human monkeys. He often says, “Their red faces remind me of decaying carcasses.” To him they were something rotting and decaying. He hates them because they humiliate and disgrace the Muslims for nothing.

When he learns of the New Constitution, he is happy. Now he wants to maintain his self-respect. When the gora soldier hits him with a stick, he beats him mercilessly. He thinks that they are of equal. In short, Ustad Mangu is very attractive, sweet and lovable person.

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