1 What is required for the reconstruction of a nation?
Or Give the writer’s views on tolerance.
Or What is the importance of love and tolerance in the society?
Or Write a note on tolerance.
In this essay “Tolerance” E.M Forster throws light on the value of tolerance in the reconstruction of the world after world war second. Some people say that a particular state of mind is required for the reconstruction of the nation. This state of mind is love. EM Forster does no agree with this view. He says love is a vital force in family/ private affairs but it does not work in public affairs. It has been tried in history but it has always been failed. He says love may be in practice with the people whom we know. We can not love strangers or our enemies. English can not love Germans after World War II. Love cannot be practiced universally.
According to E.M Forster, two things are required for the reconstruction of civilization. One is a sound attitude of mind and the other is the right psychology. It means that unless there is awareness and desire to change and improve the condition, nothing solid can really be done. The writer says in public affairs we need tolerance.
It is a spiritual quality that is most needed in the after-war conditions. The writer tells that tolerance does not mean weakness or defeat. It is only putting up with people who have different ideas and views from us. It is the only virtue and force by which different races, classes, and nations can succeed in the work of reconstruction of the nation.
- 2 What is the ‘NAZI’ solution to dealing with the people one does not like? What is fanaticism? Explain.
The writer says that every person has fanaticism which means excessive intolerance of opposing views. Every person has racial prejudice. The writer gives an example of the racial prejudice of the Nazis. They claimed that they were the best nation in the world and all the other nations were inferior and had no right to live. They were deadly against the Jews so they not only killed them mercilessly but also banished them. They adopt Nazi solutions to deal with the people. “Nazi” solution means if you do not like people, kill them, banish them, or segregate them. Tell them that they are not fit to live in this world. The writer maintains that such a solution is unrealistic because it creates violence.
The other solution is less and less dramatic. But this is a practical and reasonable solution to the problems of the world. The writer is in favor of it. It is based on tolerance. It suggests us to tolerate those whom we do not like. On the basis of tolerance, a civilized future may be built. He points out that the disputes and quarrels of the nations can be settled down if they begin to live with one another on the basis of tolerance. We must check fanaticism and spread tolerance if we want to rebuild this world as a peaceful and safe place.
- 3 Is tolerance a weakness? Or Tolerance is not the same as weakness. Explain?
E.M. Forster says that tolerance does not mean weakness or defeat. It is only putting up with people who have different ideas and views from us.
Tolerance and Weakness are different from each other. It is sometimes equated with weakness and cowardice because many great men dislike tolerance. The writer says that St. Paul and Dante were great men but they disliked tolerance. He also talks of those great men who were in favor of tolerance. Buddhist Emperor Asoka, Dutch Schollaw Erasmus, Montaigne, John Lock, Sydney, and Smith were in favor of tolerance and they testified this virtue. He who tolerates other people different from him is not weak or coward. The person who bears hostile views and ideas is brave. Tolerance is the only virtue and force by which different races, classes, and nations can succeed in the work of reconstruction of the nation. Tolerance is the spiritual quality that is most needed in the after-war conditions. If we start living with others with tolerance, love may be born later on. By this, we may reconstruct the world speedily and more solidly, but it is not all possible without tolerance.
4 “It is to easy to see fanaticism in other people, but difficult to spot it in oneself.” Is it really so?
At the end of the essay, Forster remarks that it is very easy to see fanaticism in other people but it is difficult for us to spot it in ourselves. Fanaticism means excessive intolerance of opposing views. According to him, it is a great hindrance in the reconstruction of a great universal civilization.
We can condemn nazis for suffering from racial prejudice but we have never ever seen how much guiltless or racial prejudice is in us.
No doubt, the reformers have been preaching tolerance to promote peace and prosperity in the world but the majority of the people are ego-centric. They see and note fanaticism in others but they are unable to root it out from their own personality. Forster stresses, upon the fact that tolerance is not a weakness at all. Putting up with people does not mean surrender before them. If we start living with others with tolerance, love may be born later on which we may reconstruct the world speedily and more solidly, but it is not all possible without tolerance.v