Pakistan and the Modern World
- 1 Describe the circumstances which led to the creation of Pakistan?
Or Why did the Muslims of India demand a separate homeland?
Or Explain the two-nation theory in the light of Liaquat Ali Khan.
Or On what basis the demand of Muslims for a separate homeland was reasonable and justified? 2006
Or How the creation of Pakistan had dissolved the threat that Asia could be a permanent danger zone.
Or What is the rationale of Pakistan? 1995, 1996
Liaquat Ali Khan in his address at the University of Kansas in 1950 told that the demand of Muslims for a separate homeland was totally justified not only on humanitarian grounds but also on political grounds. He gave so many reasons in this regard.
First of all, in British India, there lived one hundred million Muslims along with three hundred million others, mostly Hindus. The Muslims feared if they got freedom from the British they would be under the permanent domination of Hindus.
Secondly, the Muslims differed from the Hindus in every sphere of life, whatever it was religious, social, cultural, or economic. They neither inter-dined nor intermarried. The Muslims believed in one God and the prophets of the Testament where the Hindus did not. Thirdly the Hindus believed in the caste system whereas the Muslims believed inequality of human beings.
Fourthly the Muslims believed in the right of private ownership of everyone whereas the Hindus did not. According to the teaching of Islam, it was unlawful to accumulate wealth rather Islam wants its distribution among the poor. Sixthly the Muslims also feared that under Hindu domination they would not be able to promote their own culture and to practice the golden principles of Islam. Seventhly the subcontinent was vast enough that it could easily be divided into two independent countries, so these were some reasons and differences due to which the Muslims demanded their separate homeland.
Liaquat Ali Khan also expressed the fear if Pakistan had not been separated from the rest of British India there would have been serious dangers. The creation of Pakistan had removed the danger that Asia could be a permanent danger zone.
Immediately after its establishment, Pakistan had to face numerous difficulties. Setting up the administration of a new state is never easy, but in the case of Pakistan, the difficulties were extraordinary. We had no flag and no capital. There was practically no administrative machinery. We had no engineers and traders. There was no industry in the new state. Pakistan was allotted an army but its men and officers were scattered in distant parts, of India. Only a very small number could reach Pakistan in 1947. The major portion of its share of military equipment was never handed over to Pakistan. Millions of Muslims were forced to flee from Bharat and come to Pakistan. They were m a miserable condition. They needed food, shelter, and medical aid. This alone was a huge task. The unity of the people and their firm faith, however, conquered all difficulties.
Q.3 According to the Liaquat Ali Khan what are the demands that our freedom makes on us? 2006
Liaqat Ali Khan in his speech explained the real meanings of freedom. He said that freedom does not mean freedom from foreign domination. People should be free from hunger, disease, ignorance, and backwardness. He said unless these aims are achieved, freedom does not have any importance for a common man. He also explained the demands that our freedom makes on us. First of all, we would maintain our freedom. It does not descent upon any nation but a nation has to struggle very hard to get it. It requires constant attention. He said that our freedom demands from us that we should stand by the present world in order to get the rightful place. During the last two or three centuries, the Muslims of sub-continent remained backward due to foreign domination. It was these years that the western countries used science and technology and progressed very much. That was why that not only the Muslims of the sub-continent but most of the people of Asia remained backward because they missed this time period of history. He explained that our resources were undeveloped and the standard of living was much low than that of the western people. Here he pointed out a very important thing that the people of Pakistan could progress in the same way if they combined their religion with modern science. What he meant was that the Muslims should not follow the west blindly hut they should also keep their religion in their mind.
- 4 According to Liaquat Ali Khan what is the role of the western world to Asia?
Or What were the expectations of Liaquat Ali Khan from America and the western world? 1998
As the Asian countries including Pakistan were facing a lot of problems at that time, Liaquat Ali Khan emphasized much upon the role of America and the Western World. He said that the western world should not make democracy limited just within the advanced countries but it should also promote and encourage democracy in backward countries of Asia. It should try to maintain world peace. It should not resist some particular aggressor just for its own sake but it should resist aggression everywhere along with that the Asian countries that have not progressed much due to the colonial rule or some other reasons. The western countries should give their skills and knowledge to these countries so that they may also stand by the modern world.
As Pakistan was a new democracy, Liaquat Ali Khan emphasized upon the American government to support Pakistan as much as possible and to maintain world peace because Pakistan was situated in the area where it faced some threats from its neighbor India. If there is peace in Pakistan, it will be promoted to other countries in the world. There would come a balance of power in the world. There will be progress in the world in true sense. It will bring peace and prosperity to the world. He emphasized upon the western world and America that it should support Asia in general and Pakistan in particular in almost every aspect of life, especially the economy. He warned in case of not doing so, unexpected revolutions might occur