Use of Tenses

Present indefinite tense is used;

  • For Actions done regularly or irregularly;
  • For Universal truth;
  • For Facts those are always or usually true;
  • For Scientific laws

Following words also indicate present tense.

all the time every month often
always every semester rarely
every class every week sometimes
every day every year usually
every holiday most of the time frequently
every hour never seldom
occasionally sometime generally

Example:         

We (go) there daily.

We go there daily.     (Habit)

There is a list of verbs which are used in present indefinite tense and are not used progressive tenses. These verbs are called stative verbs

Some common Stative verbs:

  1. Verbs indicating possession: belong, have (=possess), own, possess
  2. Verbs indicating mental states: believe, doubt, imagine, know, mean, recognize, remember, suppose, think (=believe), understand, wonder
  3. Verbs related to the senses: appear, feel, hear, look (=appear), see, smell, taste
  4. Verbs referring to emotions: appreciate, desire, dislike, hate, like, love
  5. other Stative verbs: contain, cost, equal, measure, need, owe, prefer, seem, want, weigh

2. THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE

STRUCTURE:

S+ IS/ARE /AM + ING FORM.

1-         HE/SHE/IT/NAME (SINGULAR) ——–IS + ING FORM.

2-         THEY/YOU (PLURAL) ————ARE+ ING FORM.

3-         I————————————AM +ING FORM.

The following words indicate this tense:     

Now; at present, at the moment, today, currently, this week

Example:

She (learn) Urdu at present.

She is learning Urdu at present.

3. THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE

STRUCTURE:

S+HAVE/HAS + PARTICIPLE

1-HE/SHE/IT/NAME (SINGULAR) —–HAS +3RD FORM.

2-I/THEY/YOU/WE (PLURAL) ——-HAVE +3RD FORM

The following words indicate this tense:

Just; already; yet; for; since; recently, lately, so far, ever, upto now,

Example:

I (not write) this letter yet.

I have not written this letter as yet.

4. THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

HAS /HAVE BEEN + ING-FORM OF VERB

The following words indicate this tense:
Since; for, all day, during

Examples

He (work) since morning.

he  has been working, since morning.

5. THE PAST INDEFINITE TENSE

STRUCTURE:

SUBJECT + 2ND FORM + OBJECT. (SIMPLE)

SUBJECT(S/P) +DID NOT+ 1ST FORM + OBJECT.

DID + SUBJECT(S/P) + 1ST FORM + OBJECT?

DID + SUBJECT(S/P) +NOT+ 1ST FORM + OBJECT?

The following words indicate this tense:

Ago, last, yesterday, previous day, at noon, in the after noon, in the evening/morning, on Monday/Friday

Note:             

Past—————-followed by—————–Past

   While/when+2nd form, was/were +ing-form

  1.   He (go) from here two days ago.

     He went from here two days ago. (use of ago)

  •   He said that he (be) happy.

     He said that he was happy, (past followed by past)

  •   When he (go) out, the sun was shining.

When he went out, the sun was shining. (2nd—ing)

  1. When I went there, he was eating meal.

6. THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE

STRUCTURE:

S+ WAS/WERE + ING FORM.

1-         I/HE/SHE/IT/NAME (SINGULAR) —–WAS + ING FORM.

2-         THEY/YOU/WE (PLURAL) ——-WERE+ ING FORM.

The following words indicate this tense:

Those days, at that time, then

When+2nd form (given)              (to be used) was/were+ ing

While+2nd form (given)                (to be used) was/were+ ing

Before+2nd form (given)—(to be used) was/were+ing

Examples:

  1. When I saw him, he (go) to the station.
    When I saw him, he was going to the station.
  2. In those days, he (write) a book.

In those days, he was writing a book.

    7. THE PAST PERFECT TENSE

  SUBJECT+HAD + PARTICIPLE

The following words indicate this tense:

Already; before; after; would that; if only; as if;

Examples:

1.     We sat down to rest after he (go).

We sat down to rest after he had gone

2.     Would that he (come).
Would that he had come.

(After’ as if/as though/I wish                         were or had+3rd form)

8. THE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

    S+HAD BEEN + ING FORM

The following words indicate this tense:

With the sense of Past: Since; for; all day; during the night Examples:

  1. He (study) for the previous two days.

He had been studying for the previous two days.

  1. When I came, he (work) since morning.

When I came, he bad been, working since morning.

9. THE FUTURE INDEFINITE TENSE

STANDARD STRUCTURE:

S+ WILL BE/SHALL BE + ING FORM.

Or

                 S+AM/IS/ARE + GOING TO + BE + ING FORM.

1-        THEY/YOU/HE/SHE/IT/NAME —–WILL BE + ING FORM.

2-         I/WE ——-SHALL BE+ ING FORM.

The following words indicate this tense:

Next day, next month/year tomorrow, in a few days says

When +Ist form                                shall/will+ Ist Form

 If+ Ist form                              shall /will+ Ist form

Examples:

1.     I (come) to see you tomorrow.

   I shall come to see you tomorrow.

2.    I (come) back in a few days.

I shall come back in a few days.

3.    When I have time, I (write) a letter to you.
When I have time, I shall write a letter to you.

10. THE FUTURE PERFECT TENSE

STRUCTURE:

S+WILL/SHALL +HAVE + PARTICIPLE

OR

AM/IS/ARE + GOING TO + HAVE + PARTICIPLE

1-         THEY/YOU /HE/SHE/IT/NAME       WILL HAVE +3RD FORM.

2-         I/WE                                            SHALL HAVE +3RD FORM

 The following words indicate this tense:

By the next time, by now, by the next year/ month, before, till

 Example:

By the next Sunday, you (go) to Lahore.

By the next Sunday, you will have gone to Lahore.

SEQUENCE OF TENSES

When the Principal Clause is in present or future tense, there may be any tense in the subordinate clause.

  1. He says that he works hard.
  2. He says that he worked hard.
  3. He says that he will work hard.
  4. He will say that he works/worked/will work/had worked hard.

When the Principal Clause is past tense, there should be past tense in the subordinate clause except there is universal truth.

  1. He said that he worked hard.
  2. He said that he had worked hard.
  3. He said that he would work hard.
  4. He said that honesty is the best policy.

If principal and subordinate clauses are joined by ‘than’ present tense is used.

  1. He helps me more than he helps his brother.
  2. He liked me as well as he likes his brother.

THE CONDITIONAL TENSES

If + 1st form of verb                           will/shall + 1st form of verb                                    If you come to me, I shall help you.

If + 1st form of verb                           can/may + 1st form of verb                                    If you come to me, I may/ can help you.

If + 2nd form of verb                        would/might + 1st form of verb
If you came to me, I would/might help you.

If + had + 3rd form of verb               would /could /might have+ 3rd form of verb
If you had come to me, I would have helped you.

Exercise:

Put the verbs in the correct form of tense:

  1. If you work hard, you (pass).
  2. If you worked hard, you (pass).
  3. If you had worked hard, you (pass).
  4. I will bring books for you if I (go) to Lahore.
  5. I would bring books for you if I (go) to Lahore.
  6. I would have brought books for you if I (go) to Lahore.
  7. I will buy that car if I (have) money.
  8. I would buy that car if I (have) money.
  9. I would have bought that car if I (have) money.

PASSIVE VOICE

    BE + 3RD FORM OF VERB

Be = is, are, am, was, were, been, being

Examples:

1.     He will be (punish) for his misconduct.
He will be punished for his misconduct.

2     my car is repaired.

       My car was repaired.

       My car has/had been repaired.

       My car is/was being repaired.

INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES

Some helping verb is always required to make interrogative sentences.

Examples:

  1. Why you (go) there daily?
    Why do you go there daily?
  2. Why you (go) there last week?
    Why did you go there last week?
  3. Why you go there next week?

               Why will you go there next week?

   VERB AFTER PREPOSITIONS/PRONOUNS, HELPING VERBS

  1. After Prepositions(for, of on, in—–)  and Possessive Pronouns (my, our, your, his….)                              ing-form of verb is used:

Examples:

  1. He insisted on (go) there.

He insisted on going there.

  • He dislikes my (go) there.

He dislikes my going there.

2. After to, can, could, may, might, must, shall, should, will, had better, ought to, need, dare, used to, did, did not, do, does, do not, does not, let                 1st  form

3. After has, have, had                                3 rd form

4. After is/are/am/was/ were/will be/ shall be                              ing form

Author: readingi

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