Stanzas

1- THE RAIN

REFERENCE:

These lines have been taken from the poem “The Rain” written by William Henry Davies.

CONTEXT:

The poet describes a beautiful scene of nature. The drops fall on the green leaves. It makes every thing fresh. When it stops raining, the sun rays brighten the drops. This lovely scene makes the poet happy and becomes his permanent source of pleasure.

EXPLANATION:

In these lines the poet says that nature displays beauty when the rain drops fall on the various green leaves. Rain drops fall drop by drop on the thirsty and faded leaves and they also become green. This produces a sweet sound. The poet is delighted to hear this sound. The poet is extremely overjoyed when he sees that the sun comes out and brightens each dark round drop of rain. This lovely scene makes the poet happy and becomes his permanent source of pleasure.

2- NIGHT MAIL

REFERENCE:

These lines have been taken from the poem “Night Mail” written by W.H Auden.

CONTEXT:

The poet describes the journey of the Night Mail which travels all the night and brings formal and informal letters for the rich and the poor. Night mail passes by the grassland, cotton-field and moorland but always remain regular.

EXPLANATION:

In these lines the poet gives a beautiful description of the journey of a Night Mail throughout the night and the attitude of people and animals towards it. It carries letters money orders and cheques for the rich and the poor. Night mail passes by the grassland, cotton-field and moorland but always remain regular. The birds stare at it while the sheep-dogs continue sleeping. However a jug shows a little vibration due to the fast moving train.

3-LOVELIEST OF TREES, THE CHERRY NOW

REFERENCE;

These lines have been taken from the poem “Loveliest of Trees, the Cherry Now” written by A.E Housman.

CONTEXT:

The poem is in praise of cherry tree covered with white flowers. In spring season, the tree looks more fascinating and the poet is captivated by its beauty.

EXPLANATION;

In these lines the poet describes the beauty of the cherry tree. He shows his great love for the cherry tree. He says that the cherry flowers are the loveliest thing. When their branches in the woodland are overloaded with the spring blossoms and covered with snow, it captivates the poet. They welcome the Ester tide. The poet says he has spent twenty years of his life and fifty years of his life have left. The poet says that the period of fifty years he left is a short period to enjoy the glory of the cherry tree. So I will not miss the chance of going to woodland and relish the beauty of cherry tree.

4-O’ WHERE ARE YOU GOING?

REFERENCE:

These lines have been taken from the poem “Where Are You Going?” by an unknown poet.

CONTEXT:

The lines present the dialogue between two imaginary Persons, personified as Reader and Rider. Rider is a bold, courageous, and ambitious person enough to make his way to the glory through thick and thin whereas Reader is a pessimist and coward by nature. Life is a struggle and the hard work is the only key to success.

EXPLANATION:

Stanza-1

In these lines Reader forbids Rider to carry on his journey to the valley. He says that the valley is fatal and full of dangers. There are heaps of dung and rubbish whose bad smell will sicken and madden his mind and he will die on the way. It is also fatal because of gap in which he will fall and die. That gap will become his grave. But Rider does not follow the advice of Reader. It is because Rider is an ambitious and courageous person. He wants to continue his journey on the way to glory and success through thick and thin.

Stanza-2

In these lines Fearer talks to Farer. Farer is a bold, courageous, and ambitious person whereas Fearer is a pessimist and coward by nature. He frightens Farer by saying that it will be dark on the way to the pass and he will find nothing. It will be very difficult to walk in such situation. His feet will feel whether he is walking on the grass or on the rocks. But Farer does not follow the advice of Reader. It is because Farer is an ambitious and courageous person. He wants to continue his journey on the way to glory and success through thick and thin.

Stanza-3

In these lines Horror talks to Hearer. Hearer is a bold, courageous, and ambitious person whereas Horror is a pessimist and coward by nature. He frightens Hearer by saying that there will be strange and dangerous birds on the way to the valley. There will also be a strange shape in the terrifying cluster of trees and they may attack him. A monster will follow to kill him. During his journey, the spot on his skin will become a dreadful disease and it will make him disable. But Hearer does not follow the advice of Horror. It is because Hearer is an ambitious and courageous person. He wants to continue his journey on the way to glory and success through thick and thin.

Stanza-4

In these lines the brave person (Rider/Farer/Hearer) replies to the cowardly person (Reader/fearer, horror) that he is leaving his house to enter the fatal field of life and he will get through in his mission. He says to cowardly person that he cannot get his goal because he is afraid of hardships which he may face on the way to glory and success. The way to glory and success is not clear and certain but it can be certain and vivid by courage and perseverance. The strange bird and shapes are searching Horror. Saying this, the brave man leaves every thing there and goes to his journey.

5- IN THE STREET OF THE FRUIT STALLS

REFERENCE:

These lines have been taken from the poem “In the Street of the fruit stalls” written by Jan Stall worthy.

CONTEXT;

The poet describes the evening routine of the children who reach the fruit stalls with a coin to buy fruit. The children eat them with relish. The poet is also standing there thinking about the threat of misery and poverty in the world due to war. Children do not bother about the surrounding like the poet. They are enjoying without of miseries and poverty in the world.       

EXPLANATION:

Stanza-1

In these lines the poet describes the evening scene in the street of fruit stalls. The fruit sellers are selling guava, melon and orange, in the reasonable lantern light. The dew falls on the red and golden fruit piled in conical form. They look like cannon bombs when light falls on them.

Stanza-2

In these lines the poet says that the poor children with a coin reach the fruit stall to buy fruit. They look at the fruit like melon, guava and mandarin. The melon in the light resembles the moon where as the mandarin looks like the sun when the light falls on them.

Stanza-3

In these lines the poet says that the mouth, fingers, cheeks, nose, and chin of the children become wet with the golden and silver juice when they break the fruits open and eat. They are as bright as the lamp. They forget the miseries of life. They are also unmindful of the darkness and the presence of the poet standing worried in the dark street.

6-SINDHI WOMEN

REFERENCE;

These lines have been taken from the poem “Sindhi Women” written by Jan Stall worthy.

CONTEXT;

In this poem the poet tells us about a Sindhi Woman who is passing through a bazaar of Karachi slum. She is bare footed. She walks straight and beautifully despite carrying a jar on her head. The poet is of the view that only those are strong and straight who bear the burden of and hardships of life.

EXPALNATION:

Stanza-1

In these lines the poet describes a Sindhi Woman who is passing through a bazaar of Karachi slum. She is bare footed and is swaying her body. Her dress is floating due to wind. Her walk is very impressive and graceful. The Sindhi woman holding a stone jar on her head is walking smoothly and steadily like a wave of stream through the Karachi slums. She is hardworking and patient.

Stanza-2

In these lines the poet describe that he sees the Sindhi Woman passing through the Karachi slums where the stone, garbage, and the glass pieces are lying. Her gait is quite erect and majestic. She is really enviable as she has a straight physique despite carrying a load. The poet says that he is bent by the time as he does not carry any weight. He concludes that those who bear the burden and hardships of life always remain strong and straight like the Sindhi Woman.

7-TIMES

REFERENCE:

These lines have been taken from the poem “Times” written by Ecclesiasts.

CONTEXT:

In this poem, it has been revealed that Allah is the supreme authority in this universe. Every thing happened under His command. The time for every happening has been fixed. All the systems are being regulated by some remote control system. Nothing happens out of place.

EXPLANATION;

In these lines it is said that every thing happens in this universe according to the Will of God and the Divine Will cannot be defied. The human beings are powerless. Every thing like birth, death, sowing and harvesting our speech and silence, gain and loss etc. are planned according to the Will of Allah Almighty. Allah gives us courage to build the demolished buildings. Our tears and pleasures are also His given. Weather we have to cast away the stones or collect them, embrace someone or avoid him, get something or lose it, speak or keep silence, save time or waste it ,sew the torn clothes all depends upon the Will of Allah.

8-OZYMANDIAS

REFERENCE:

These lines have been taken from the poem “Ozymandias” written by Jan Percy Bysshe Shelley

CONTEXT:

In this the poet tells that death is a great leveler. It brings an end to all luxuries of life. Man should always be humble on his success He should not be proud of his success. Man should not have feelings of superiority in him because it is an illusion and self deception. A traveler from an ancient country tells the poet that he saw a broken statue of a King namely Ozymandias. On the pedestal some words were written which show his proud and arrogance.

EXPLANATION:

Stanza-1

In these lines the poet tells that he met a traveler from an ancient country. He tells the poet that he saw two huge bodiless legs and a broken face in anger half buried in the sand. The facial expressions of Ozymandias’ statue indicate order and command, anger and arrogance, hatred and contempt and an endless pride of success. The artist has portrayed the inner feelings of the statue of Ozymandias so beautifully that one could see that he was proud, heartless and contemptuous of others in his life.

Stanza-2

In these lines the poet tells that Ozymandias claimed himself to be the king of kings. Achievements made him proud and contemptuous of others. He believed that no one could be equal to him but now it was dessert everywhere and nothing was left that the king was so proud of. The pride and wretched reality of a man’s life is described in this poem.

9-THE FEED

REFERENCE;

These lines have been taken from the poem “The Feed” written by Ahmad Nadeem Qasmi.

CONTEXT;

The poet describes the love of mother for her young ones. The mother sparrow goes out and brings a grain of millet in her beak to feed them. They are seven in number, the poem also shows hatred against the nuclear weapons and gives emphasis on the equal distribution of food among the whole masses.

EXPLANATION:
Stanza-I

In these lines the poet describes spiritual attachment between a sparrow mother and her young ones. She sacrifices her comfort and peace for their safe survival. The mother sparrow goes out and brings a grain of millet in her beak to feed her ten newborns who have no feathers. They are crying and she tries to satisfy all of them. When they cry only their beaks can be seen.

Stanza-2

In these lines the poet describes the problem of the mother sparrow. The mother sparrow has ten young ones. All of them are hungry. She is worried because there is only one grain to feed the ten young ones and she also does not know how to break this grain to satisfy her children. The poet wants to tell the problem of poverty.

The children in hunger start crying. The poet says that that splitting the grain provides life and pleasure to all. However sorrows spread by breaking the atom. Now it depends upon man which way he adopts.

10 -THE HOLLOW MEN

REFERENCE:

These lines have been taken from the poem “The Hollow Men” written by T.S Eliot.

CONTEXT:

The human beings have become worthless and soulless. They behave like puppets because they have not their own views. They imitate each other blindly. Modern men have lack of wisdom and knowledge. The modern men are hollow and stuffed people.         

EXPLANATION:

Stanza-1                                                                          

In these lines the poet says the modern men are hollow because they have no creativity. They behave like puppets because they have not their own views. They imitate each other blindly because their heads are empty. They have lack of wisdom and knowledge. The modern men are hollow and stuffed people. They live in dreams. They try to depend upon each other but cannot build a society. He says that men are only puppets or dolls made of straw.

Stanza-2

In theses lines the poet says that we are unable to lead others because our speeches convey nothing. Our voices are only the voices made by the grass or the rats running over the broken glass. They are meaningless. Modern man has lost his communicating power. We have shapes but inside we have nothing. We have no form and colour and true strength.

Stanza-3

In these lines the poet says that some of use have left this world and reached the other country. They have forgotten us. The departed souls do not know of our worries and frustrations. They spent purposeful life. They were wise. Our souls are strong but they lack confidence. Our souls are full of emotions and sentiments. We know nothing so we have nothing to say. They might have remembered us as the hollow men and the stuffed men.

11-LEISURE

REFERENCE;

These lines have been taken from the poem” Leisure” written by William Henry Davies.

CONTEXT:

In this poem the poet has criticized the busy life in the modern age. He laments that the modern man has become so much absorbed in worldly affairs that he has ignored all the delights of life. He has no time see the manifestations of nature. The poet is of the view that nature has a message of love and peace but we are blind to this fact.

EXP ANATION:

Stanza-1

In these lines the poet says that the life of modern man is useless. His life is replete with worldly cares and worries. He has no some spare some time to visit the natural places. The poet says that even cows and sheep are better than the human beings because they stay in nature day and night. The shade of a tree is blessing. We do not notice the natural pleasure of the streams and their fresh water which have their own beauty.

Stanza-2

The poet says that we have no time to stare at a beautiful face and enjoy the artful dance of a young girl. We can not wait to notice the beautiful smile on her face which began at first in her eyes. This smile makes her face more beautiful and shining. The poet comes to conclusion if our life is so full of worries and cares that we cannot find some spare time to enjoy the beautiful objects and manifestations of nature, it is insignificant and worthless.

12-RUBA’IYAT

REFERENCE;

These lines have been taken from the poem “Ruba’iyat” written by Allama Muhammad Iqbal.

CONTEXT:

Allama Iqbal is trying to show the path of enlightment to the Muslims. He says that the Muslims should love Allah and His Holy Prophet (SAW) whole heartedly. It also gives the lesson of harmony among the Muslims. However they have no faith in their own culture and civilization and are running after the modern fake civilizations blindly.

EXPALNATION:

Stanza-1

In these lines the poet says that them Muslims should have faith like that of Hazrat Abraham (AS) who jumped into fire in love of Allah and refused to give up his faith. He was the true lover of Allah. The Muslims should have faith in their own culture and tradition. To have no faith is worse than slavery so the Muslims should have faith in Allah. The Muslims whom the civilization and culture of Europe captivates a lot should know if they follow it, they will make themselves slave of Europe.

Stanza-2

In these lines the poet says that Islam is the binding force among the Muslim. It brings harmony among them. Islam is found in all over the world. All the Muslims of the world are a nation because their philosophy of life is same that is the oneness of Allah, the last prophet Muhammad (SAW) and the hereafter. The European countries have no such philosophy of life. The modern civilization of Europe has no true faith like that of Islam. They guide for material progress instead of spiritual progress. Islam is a unique religion which assures us material and spiritual success.

Stanza-3

In these lines the poet describes the present condition of the Muslims. The poet says the present state of the Muslims is not enviable. They have become materialistic. They have no love for their religion. They follow the modern civilization as a matter of honour and dignity. Their prayers are fruitless, their ranks are broken, their hearts are confused and their feelings for Islam are just eye wash. It is all because they have no unity and true spirit of Islam. They have lost the true spirit of Islam.

13-A TALE OF TWO CITIES

REFERENCE:

These lines have been taken from the poem “A tale of two cities” written by an unknown poet.

CONTEXT:

The poem deals with the destruction of the two cities of Japan namely Hiroshima and Nagasaki. It was caused when America dropped two atom bombs on these cities. Every thing was ruined but Japanese didn’t lose heart. They worked day and night to rebuild their nation with great determination and will power and proved to be a great economic power on the map of the world.

EXPLANATION;

In these lines the poet narrates the destruction caused by two atom bombs dropped by America. Japan was collapsed at one time. It was a great violation of human rights. The victims of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were seriously injured. The ruthless attack of two atom bombs by the United States caused wholesale death and destruction. There were fires and dead bodies everywhere. Those who survived were burnt and injured badly. The atmosphere was full of cries of pain. Buildings were reduced to rubbles. The greenery of hills was burnt. The trees lost their leaves. Nothing was left behind. Every thing was ruined but Japanese didn’t lose heart. They worked day and night to rebuild their nation with great determination and will power and proved to be a great economic power on the map of the world.

14.MY NEIGHBOUR FRIEND BREATHING HIS LAST

REFERENCE;

These lines have been taken from the poem “My Neighbour Friend Breathing his Last” written by a Sufi poet Bullah Shah translated by A.R. Luther.

CONTEXT;

The poet has a mystical poetic temperament. He describes the agony of his heart at the time of separation from his heavenly beloved. There are unseen flames of love and cries everywhere. This is the result of his long contemplation of nature.

EXPLANATION:

Stanza-1

In these lines the poet tells about his friend who is dying in front of his eyes. The poet is upset and disturb. He cannot do any thing for his friend. He is helpless before the decree of Allah. He says that his friend is about to leave this world. The poet is frightened to see his friend breathing his last because he thinks that he will also die one day. He prays to God to help him to bear the loss of his friend. All the companions of the dying friend have reached there and are ready to see him leaving this world. The poet shows helplessness and prays to God to help in this situation of sorrow.

Stanza-2

In these lines the poet says it is very difficult to bear the grief of the death of some dear friend. Every one is talking about his departure from this world. Some of the relatives are crying and wailing to express their grief. The feels helpless and prays to God to help him to bear this loss. The poet is also worried about his own death. He does not know what to do.

Stanza-3

In these lines the poet says that death is unavoidable sis difficult to bear. He says that the flames of grief of his friend’s death are bursting in his heart. They are constantly increasing. There is no any attraction. Every thing looks sorrowful. The poet is terrified at the thought of his own death and prays to God to help him bear this loss.

Stanza-4

In these lines the poet says that death is the great reality of this world. Everyone in this world has to die sooner or later. He says that all the losses of this world can be borne if we have love for Allah. So he can forget the loss of his friend if he loves Allah. He says Bullah has great love for Allah. He can do with out His Love in this world and the hereafter. He prays to God to help bear this loss.

15.HE CAME TO KNOW HIMSELF

REFERENCE:

These lines have been taken from the poem, “He came to know himself written by Sachal Sarmast.

CONTEXT:

The poet says that a man is a wonderful creation. He is the manifestation of the Grace and Glory of God. God has blessed him with great love. He should not take interest in this temporary earth.

EXPLANATION:

The poet says that Man has been alighted from the heaven so that he may know himself because knowing himself means to know Allah. When man loves God deeply he knows himself and sees Him in every object. He understands the purpose of his creation. He loves God and showers this love on the other creatures of Allah. He does every thing in love of Allah. Mansur was the true lover of Allah. He was so absorbed and lost in the love Allah that he called himself Allah. People misunderstood and he was hanged on the gallows for having such feelings. He kissed and mounted the gallows happily in the love of Allah.

The poet says that it is a bare and hard fact that life is quite uncertain and temporary on this earth. It comes to an end with its all pleasures and comforts as soon as one dies. We are here for a very short period of time. So we should love Allah to know ourselves to be closer and closer to Allah.

16.GOD’S ATTRIBUTES

REFERENCE:

These lines have been taken from the poem, “God’s attributes” written by Jalaluddin Rumi translated by Dr. Nichalson.

CONTEXT:

In this poem the poet describes the importance of the attributes of God. He stresses upon the study of these attributes and understand the real sense of these attributes so as to make our life more and more successful. These attribute prevent us from committing sins. The attributes of God are 99 in number.

EXPLANATION:

In these lines the poet says the attributes of God play a role of vital importance in building human character. The attribute of Hearing checks a person from using a foul language. The attribute of the All seeing restrains us from wrong doing. Similarly the attribute of the All Knowing makes us afraid of plotting evils against others. So the attributes help in refining the character of a person.

In these lines the poet says that the various titles of God have definite meaning and background. They are not settled by chance as a Negro may be called camphor. These attributes are actually derived form the qualities of God. Their purpose is to make us virtuous and show us the right path.

17. THE DELIGHT SONG

REFERENCE:

These lines have been taken form the poem” The Delight Song” written by “N.Scott Momaday”

CONTEXT:

In this poem the poet says that a man can be happy, active and alive if he enjoys the beautiful objects of nature and has good relation with them. We should have good relation with Allah and His all creations. In order to lead a contented life we should love every thing around us.

EXPLANATION:

In these lines the poet tells about all those things which provide him pleasure and they are also in harmony with him. He takes delight in becoming a feather flying in the air, a horse running in the plain and a fish moving in water. He loves the innocence of the children, the shine of the green fields and the flight of eagle. He wants to be a cluster of beads and of distant stars. He likes the sweet cold of dawn the music of rain, the glitter of the snow, the long reflection of the moon in the lake and the beauty of colorful flame. He wants to dream of all these things.

In these lines the poet says that he is alive and leading a contented life because I have good relation with the lord, the earth, all the beautiful objects of nature and all that is useful and fruitful. He is happy because he has complete harmony with them.

18-LOVE AN ESSENCE OF ALL RELIGIONS

REFERENCE:

These lines have been taken from the poem, “Love an essence of All Religions” written by Jalaluddin Runii translated by Dr. Nichalson.

CONTEXT:

In this poem the poet tells a universal truth that the greatest thing in the universe is love. It is so magical and wonderful power that it can make a possible out of impossible. Life is nothing without love because it makes the world a happy place to live in.

EXPLANATION:

Love is an essence of all the religions. It is love that makes adversities into pleasures. Life becomes success by love otherwise life without it is not worth living. These lines give emphasis on the spiritual function of love. The poet has firm belief that love can change thorns into roses, vinegar into sweet wine, misfortune into fortune, grief into joy, burning fire into pleasing light and every unpleasant thing into pleasant one. The stone hearted people become soft hearted. Love makes an angry person kind and humane. It is love that makes a king slave of others. So we can say that love can make impossible things possible.

19- A MAN OF WORDS NOT OF DEEDS

REFERENCE:

These lines have been taken from the poem, “A Man of Words And Not Of Deeds” written by “Charles Perrault”.

CONTEXT:

The poem depicts the importance of work in man’s life. It gives a lesson that we should become men of actions instead of words. We should take action according to our words. We should engage ourselves in some productive activities because an idle man is like a wild plant and winter snow that destroys the garden.

EXPLANATION:

In these lines the poet says that a man of words who does nothing and always spends his time in gossip is like an unwanted wild plant in the garden. He is worthless and useless. In winter he is like garden which is full of snow where no anyone goes for walk. The birds also do not stay there because that is not safe place for their lives. Then he becomes the bird sitting idle and secondly he is like an eagle that flies in the sky aimlessly. When the clouds thunder and roar, it looks like death in the form of lion at his door. When death knocks at his door he feels restlessness and backache. His condition becomes very pitiable and he suffers heart attack. His heart starts bleeding which becomes the cause of his death. It shows that an idle man never works and in the end he dies miserably.

20- IN BROKEN IMAGES

REFERENCE:

These lines have been taken from the poem, “In Broken Images” written by “Robert Graves”.

CONTEXT:

In this poem the poet says that a man should always look for new images in life. He must have inquisitive and probing nature. A person who trusts his clear images without any proof does not find truth because of his wrong way of thinking. On the other hand, a person who does not depend upon his unclear/broken images finds truth because of his right way of thinking.

EXPLANATION:

In this poem the poet describes two types of persons: one who has clear understanding of a thing and the other who has not clear understanding of a thing. The first type of a man is quick in thinking and understands the simple facts with out any labour but the other type of a man is slow in thinking and takes things after deep probe. The first man takes things for granted and becomes dull and the second man since takes his time to examine the things, this activity makes him intelligent. The first man trusts his ideas and their importance whereas the second man trusts the importance of ideas after much enquiry. The first man’s clear images make him dull and he does not gain knowledge and the second’s man’s broken images make him intelligent by giving him much knowledge.

The poet says a person who trusts his clear images without any proof does not find truth because of his wrong way of thinking. On the other hand, a person who does not depend upon his unclear/broken images finds truth because of his right way of thinking. The first man fails in his life whereas the second man succeeds in his life.

Author: readingi

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