Modern Essays

              (1) Pakistan and the Modern World

Q. 1     Describe the circumstances which led to the creation of                        Pakistan?

Or       Why did the Muslims of India demand a separate homeland?

Or       Explain the two nation theory in the light of Liaquat Ali                          Khan.

Or       On what basis the demand of Muslims for a separate                              homeland was reasonable and justified? 2006

Or       How the creation of Pakistan had dissolved the threat that                   Asia could be permanent danger zone.

Or       What is the rationale of Pakistan? 1995, 1996

            Liaquat Ali Khan in his address at the University of Kansas in 1950 told that the demand of Muslim for separate homeland was totally justified not only on human grounds but also on political grounds. He gave so many reasons in this regard.

            First of all, in British India, there lived one hundred million Muslims along with three hundred million others, mostly Hindus. The Muslim feared if they got freedom from British they would be under permanent domination of Hindus.

            Secondly the Muslims differed from the Hindus in every sphere of life, whatever it was religious, social, cultural or economic. They neither inter-dined nor inter married. The Muslims believed in one God and the prophets of Testament where the Hindus did not. Thirdly the Hindus believed in caste system whereas the Muslim believed in equality of human beings.

            Fourthly the Muslims believed in the right of private ownership of every one whereas the Hindus did not. According to the teaching of Islam, it was unlawful to accumulate wealth rather Islam wants its distribution among the poor.  Sixthly the Muslims also feared that under Hindu domination they would not be able to promote their own culture and to practice the golden principles of Islam. Seventhly the sub continent was vast enough that it could easily be divided into two independent countries, so these were some reasons and differences due to which the Muslims demanded their separate homeland. 236

            Liaquat Ali Khan also expressed the fear if Pakistan had not been separated from the rest of British India there would have been serious dangers. The creation of Pakistan had removed the danger that Asia could be a permanent danger zone.308

Q.2          What difficulties Pakistan had to face immediately after its                                                                     establishment?

            Immediately after its establishment, Pakistan had to face numerous difficulties. Setting up the administration of a new state is never easy, but in the case of Pakistan the difficulties were extraordinary. We had no flag and no capital. There was practically no administrative machinery. We had no engineers and traders. There was no industry in the new state. Pakistan was allotted an army but its men and officers were scattered in distant parts, of India. Only a very small number could reach Pakistan in 1947. The major portion of its share of military equipment was never handed over to Pakistan. Millions of Muslims were forced to flee from Bharat and come to Pakistan. They were m a miserable condition. They needed food, shelter and medical aid. This alone was a huge task. The unity of the people and their firm faith, however, conquered all difficulties.145

Q.3      According to the Liaquat Ali Khan what are the demands that              our freedom makes on us? 2006

Liaqat Ali Khan in his speech explained the real meanings of freedom. He said that freedom does not mean freedom from foreign domination. People should be free from hunger, disease, ignorance and backwardness. He said unless these aims are achieved, freedom does not have any importance for a common man. He also explained the demands that our freedom makes on us. First of all we would maintain our freedom. It does not descent upon any nations but a nation has to struggle very hard to get it. It requires constant attention. He said that our freedom demands from us that we should stand by the present world in order to get the rightful place. During the last two or three centuries, the Muslims of sub continent remained backward due to the foreign domination. It was these years that the western countries used science and technology and progressed very much. That was why that not only the Muslims of the sub continent but most of the people of Asia remained backward because they missed this time period of history. He explained that our resources were undeveloped and the standard of living was much low than that of the western people. Here he pointed out a very important thing that people of Pakistan could progress in the same way if they combined their religion with modern science. What he meant was that the Muslims should not follow the west blindly hut they should also keep their religion in their mind. 248

Q. 4     According to Liaquat Ali Khan what is the role of western world to Asia?

Or       What were the expectations of Liaquat Ali Khan from America and western world? 1998

As the Asian countries including Pakistan were facing a lot of problems at that time, Liaquat Ali Khan emphasized much upon the role of America and the Western World. He said that the western world should not make the democracy limited just within the advanced countries but it should also promote and encourage democracy in backward countries of Asia. It should try to maintain the world peace. It should not resist some particular aggressor just for its own sake but it should resist aggression everywhere along with that the Asian countries that have not progressed much due to the colonial rule or some other reasons. The western countries should give their skills and knowledge to these countries so that they may also stand by the modern world.

As Pakistan was the new democracy, Liaquat Ali Khan emphasized upon the American government to support Pakistan as much as possible and to maintain world peace because Pakistan was situated in the area where it faced some threats from its neighbour India. If there is peace in Pakistan, it will be promoted to other countries of the world. There would come balance of power in the world. There will be progress in the world in true sense. It will bring peace and prosperity in the world. He emphasized upon the western world and America that it should support Asia in general and Pakistan in particular in almost every aspect of life especially economy. He warned in case of not doing so, unexpected revolutions might occur. 252

(2) The Eclipse

Q: 1    Describe the scene in which the people of England were so excited to see the eclipse?

Or       describe the hustle and bustle of the people pointing to observe the Eclipse. 2002(s), 2010 S

The essay is about an incident of eclipse that took place in England one night. The writer was also included among the people who went to see the eclipse. She has narrated the whole incident vividly how the eclipse took place and the feelings of the people at the changing of the colours.

            The writer says that when the eclipse was going to take place everybody gathered at Euston railway station to travel to North. The people were very excited and they wanted to see the scene with their eyes. There was no calm that night. Even the people started their journey before the eclipse.

The people who were going to see the eclipse had no individuality of their own and they had cut off their relations with the world only for some hours to see the eclipse. Even the people living in the countryside were very excited. The farmers with their families in their Sunday clothes came out to join the procession. The whole episode looked as if the people were going to meet some famous actor.

It was chill in the air but they were ignoring it. Some people spread their rain coats on the ground and sat on them. The writer says that they were looking like the people of ancient world who worshipped the sun in this way. 222

Q: 2    What does the writer mean that the whole fabric of civilization was modeled and moulded? 1997

Or       What is the significance of the conclusion that the whole fabric of civilization was modeled and moulded? 

Or       What is the importance of the Sun in our life?

Or       What is the theme of the essay?

In the essay “The Eclipse” the writer points out the significance of the sun in our lives. The writer has exposed this fact with the help of the phenomenon of the solar eclipse. The sun is the main source of energy and the centre of all the heavenly bodies. Our earth depends upon the sun for heat, light and energy. If the sun disappears, all the activities on the earth come to an end.

In the essay, the sun disappeared for 24 seconds due to solar eclipse. All the colours underwent a strange change. The blue turned into purple the white into livid and the pink into green. All the activities of the people came to a stand still. The villages, the valleys and the farmhouses seemed without any light. It seemed the earth would never regain its brightness.

But soon the eclipse ended and the sun rose on the other side of the earth. The writer says that the whole fabric of civilization was modeled and moulded. It means that the grandeur of the earth came back and the world looked the same as it was before the eclipse. The flesh and blood of the world came back.

The people felt really thrilled at the return of the original colours. Even the confidence of the people was also recovered when the sun washed away all the darkness prevailed upon the villages, valleys and farmhouses. Every thing looked very pleasant in its original form.

So we can say that the sun plays a role of vital importance in our life and all the colours, hustle and bustle in life are due to the sun. It is great blessing of Allah. 280

Q: 3    What were the changes took place during the eclipse? Or Describe the graphic picture of the solar eclipse.

Before the eclipse took place, everything looked paled. The rivers and the fields had no colour of them. The sun was rising at the time. The sky was clear and clouds were floating it. The sun started to reach its destination passing through the clouds. Sometimes the sun was hidden behind the clouds and sometimes it came out of the clouds and shone with full brightness. In its last effort, it tried to free itself from the grip of the clouds but could not. At last it was completely out of sight.

All the colours began to go from the moor. The blue turned to purple, the white became livid. Pink faces became green and it was colder than before. The shadows became darker and darker and the moorland just looked like a boat which was trying to get right in violent storm. All the light was coming and going again and again. When the sun eclipsed, it seemed to the people that everything was dead. The earth looked like a skeleton. All its colours and splendour was gone. All the people present there were too much surprised what would be the case if the sun eclipsed. They thought that the flesh and blood of the world is just because of the warmth and shining of the sun. 218

 (3) Whistling of Birds

Q:1     Describe the destruction that the winter caused in the essay   whistling of birds?

 Or      Description of winter season

Whistling of Birds is a description by D.H. Lawrence’s keen observation of winter season. The writer gives us terrible details of destruction caused by winter. We are just stunned to read these details. The writer has pointed out how winter proves like death not only for human beings but also for the birds. Winter is the name of death and destruction. It seems to be a very long and troublesome period. This season affects every creature. The heavy and terrible cold destroys and freezes everything. Every thing is colourless. Water in lakes, ponds, pools and streams gets freezed. The trees shed their leaves.

They are deprived of their all colours and charms. When cold becomes unbearable, small birds start dying. There bloody and torn bodies lie everywhere. Those who survive are frozen and dumb. The birds, animals and beasts suspend their activities. A dull and sad silence prevails. The whole world seems to be dead. A whistling of birds comes to an end. But the writer says that this cruel winter season with its forces of death and destruction is to be beaten by the spring season which is the season of life.

The detail of death and destruction of winter and afterwards the sudden arrival of the spring season that he gives in the essay are real like and much appealing to us. 224

Q:2     How did the sudden change take place when the winter was                gone and spring arrived? Or Describe the spring season.

Whistling of Birds is a description by D.H. Lawrence’s keen observation of winter and spring season. The writer says after terrible destructions caused by winter, suddenly the weather is changed and spring the season of life comes with its all blessings.

Warm wind starts blowing. Long and black winters come to an end. The hard snow melts and lakes, ponds, pools and streams get filled with water. Birds begin to whistle in their silvery voices as if they were welcoming the approaching season of life. The wood pigeons begin to sing with happiness and in excitement. There is life happiness, activity and gladness every where. The black bird is forced to sing. The dove begins to coo. The voice of turtle is heard. Their songs are broken and uncertain. They are still in the cruel grip of fatal cold.

Every thing welcomes the new season which is full of joy, hope and life. Nature turns over new leaf of life. There is freshness and greenery every where. New shoots appear upon the trees. Flowers give off sweet smell. The lambs begin to dance. The time of pain and misery is over now. It seems to have gone far away. It seems to be only an illusion now there is no need to remember the suffering of the past. The new reality of spring is here. 225

Q:3     Describe the writer’s love for nature? 1996(s)

Or       There is a depiction of nature in whistling of birds. 2001, 02,               03

 No doubt, when we go through the lesson, “Whistling of Birds” we come to know that the writer is much close to the nature and has great love for nature. He explains two aspects of nature. To him one (winter) is ugly and destructive and the other (spring) is beautiful and revival.

The writer’s keen observation of winter and spring season shows his love for nature. He says, in winter season, the heavy and terrible cold destroys and freezes everything. The trees and their leaves are deprived of their all colours and charms. When cold becomes unbearable, small birds start dying and their bloody and torn bodies lie everywhere. Those who survive are frozen and dumb. A dull and sad silence prevails. The whole world seems to be dead. A whistling of birds comes to an end.

His description about spring also shows his love for nature.  He says, in spring, the hard snow melts and lakes, ponds, pools and streams get filled with water. Birds begin to whistle in their silvery voices to welcome the season of life. The wood pigeons, the black bird, the dove and other birds begin to sing with happiness and in excitement. The voice of turtle is heard. Being an ardent lover of nature he also recognizes that their songs are broken and uncertain. They are still in the cruel grip of fatal cold.

The writer’s description about the sudden change from winter to spring, destruction of winter, the voices of birds with their names and movements show his love for nature. 258

(4) Take the Plunge

Q:1     Why and how did the writer jump from the plane?

Or       What was the purpose of the writer in jumping form the                       plane?

Or       What Details Does Gloria Emerson Provide Of A Plunge From              The  Airplane Into The Space?

Gloria Emerson worked in newspaper office. She wrote about woman but her stories were free from any thrill or adventure. They did not make much impact on the readers.  Though she also got some awards of her reporting of New York Times yet she wanted to do something unusual, brave and courageous. She was fed up with common stories of social and romantic contents.

She wanted to show men that women are not inferior to them in any matter. That’s why she had written this essay, no doubt to encourage the women of the world. The purpose was to surprise and impress others. So, she chose to jump from an aero plane with a parachute. It seemed to her a perfect adventure as it did not require any talent. It is something that women do not usually do. She was anxious to feel the rising of a small plane, taking the plunge in the open atmosphere and then descending slowly under the huge canopy of parachute. She was assured that parachuting was as safe as swimming. She liked it because; she had little imagination to think of the dangers involved in it.

The writer enjoyed her parachute drop. All her friends were surprised at her success. Moreover, she gave a thrilling story to her newspaper readers. Her purpose of making this jump and writing a good story was fulfilled. 229

Q:2     Describe the operation of parachute

The writer tells us in detail how her parachute worked. The 32 feet parachute, with a large cut out hole to let the air escape, was provided to her. It was like a heavy bundle strapped to her back. It could be operated to the right or left with two wooden knobs. It was specially designed to increase lateral peed, slow down the rate of descent and reduce swinging movement. She was wearing jumping suit gloves, helmet and boots which made him thick, heavy and slow. In her suit she looked very awkward. She was instructed how to open the parachute and how to maintain a swan dive position in the air.

She boarded a Cessna 180 which took her to the height of twenty three hundred feet. When her turn to jump came, she became nervous and shouted at the drill master.  He took her to the door and helped her jump out of the plane. The air knocked her about. Then the parachute opened with plop and her downward plunge slowed. Her eyes and nose were running. Spit came out of her mouth. Her chin was wet. She wiped everything with her white gloves which looked old and dirty. In this how she managed the working. 208

Q:3   What were the feelings of the writer when she jumped from                  the plane?

Or       Why did she not want to land after she had jumped? 2010(S)

When the writer’s turn to jump came, she was very nervous and refused to jump. At the force of her instructor, she jumped in the air. As she had jumped, she was spell bound to see the beauty of the atmosphere. She tells us that she had never seen the beauty of the earth and sky and colours that no one described earlier. There was no noise in the air and it was calm. She enjoyed her dive much because now she could handle the knobs of her parachute. She says that it was very exciting to go to the left and right as she wished. She was viewing her target from the space where she had to land, but she didn’t want to land then. Anyhow she landed on her feet and was received by her friend and colleagues. She was presented before General James Gavin who appreciated her very much. The writer felt so much thrilled when everybody was surprised to see her jump. Definitely it was her motive to show her capabilities.

The wind and the noise of the plane had gone away. The calm and peaceful atmosphere was delightful. She saw the vastness of the sky. The earth was covered with colorful designs. She dreadfully liked her stay in the air high over the ground. Everything looked soft and kind. She landed in the sandpit safely. Everyone was surprised at her success. 236

(5) Nagasaki August 9 1945

Q:1     Describe the destruction that the atom bomb caused in                          August 9, 1945?

Or       Describe the pains and suffering of the people.

On August 9, 1945, a B-29 fighter dropped an atom bomb on Nahasaki. It caused violent storm. There was a huge blast of wind of yellow colour. There were fires everywhere. The writer gives a detail of destruction, pains and suffering of the people. The people were in a very miserable condition. Their shreds were hanging from their bodies and they were bloody and dirty. They were seeing the surrounding with vacant eyes as if they were ghosts. Their clothes were tattered, and their limbs were missing. There were dead bodies lying around with white edges of bones. Almost all living or dead were badly charred.

The effect on the people was so tremendous that all the victims died in the coming few weeks. The humanity was helpless before the immense power of weapons. The war was won but the humanity lost.

Many students, doctors and patients were crying there for help and water. There were deaths, groans, shrieks and a terrible stench every where. Every one was severely wounded. The buildings had reduced to ashes, only their skeletons remained standing.

His schoolmates who were attending their lectures were either killed or injured. All of them died within few weeks. A large number of People died. It was difficult to dispose of their dead bodies so they burnt these bodies in piles of wood. It was very terrible for the writer to burn his dear ones. 236

Q:2     Never again should these terrible nuclear weapons be used no           matter what happens what kind of message does the writer                                                     give us?

The writer gives a detail of destruction, pains, anxiety and suffering of the people caused by the bomb. He has presented the details before us in such a manner that we are also horrified to read those details and think that God forbid if the atom bomb is used nowadays, what kind of effects it would leave upon us. No doubt that our coming generations will never forgive us for such a brutal act. That is why the writer is advising us at the end of the essay that these weapons should never be used by any country because they will produce the same terrible results that the writer has seen with his own eyes.

Unfortunately some countries including the super powers are running a race to get the most fatal weapons. They do not know that they are just preparing to make this earth a hell. They should concentrate their energies to use the atomic energy for constructive purposes so that the suffering humanity may get advantages out of it and this earth may become a peaceful place.

At the end of the essay he says that the souls of his friends will never rest in peace if mankind does not renounce the nuclear weapons and their use for the destruction of innocent people. 215

 (6) Walking On The Moon

Q. 1     How long did the astronauts remain in the orbit of the moon   and what did they see there?


  Give an account of being on the moon, when Scott was really   there? (P.U.96)

These American astronauts including Jim Irwin and Scott (the writer) undertook an expedition to the moon in Appolo-15 spaceship Endeavour, in 1971. Their spaceship remained in the lunar for twenty four hours, during which they made twelve revolutions each lasting two hours. During each round they remained for one hour in the darkness of the night, and for one hour in daylight. Their trip was purely meant for scientific experiments.

From the orbit they saw lovely and charming scenes. During night the moon looked bright in the light reflected by the earth. Stars looked like icy fires. Distant part of the moon appeared like a black arc. The scene of the rising sun was very appealing. The rays of the sun were falling on the horizon of the moon. The sun steadily rose up. Its light entered their spaceship. Mountains, craters, ditches and plains on the surface of the moon looked very bright in the sunlight. The moonscape presented a beautiful view in the early morning. Everything there was of milk-chocolate colour. The hills and craters had long shadows.

Q. 2. Describe the astronauts’ landing on the surface of the moon and their different observations.

Or       What sights not previously experienced by human beings does  he describe, and how does he?

Dr. Scott and his companions when entered the lunar orbit, they saw a very beautiful sight never experienced by any human being before.

They saw our earth shining over the moon. The mountains and the creator rims were clearly seen in that light. Before them and above them, the stars were shining, and below them lay the moon. Then the moment of sunrise approached. The sunlight flooded into the space-shop and dazzled their eyes. At last, they came down on the surface of the moon and experienced more sights.

            Each day on the moon was equal to 355 hours on earth, the sky looked black. The moon looked bright in the sunlight. They had landed on its bright side. There were mountains, plains canyons. The moonscape stretched to long distances. There were different landforms. There were ridges, high summits winding gorges. There was a strange blend of colours which changed every moment. Within moments the grey surface below their feet turned golden. The rocks had grey, black, white and green colours. Complete silence prevailed over there. They could hear only the slight sound of their footsteps. The temperature was about 150 degrees. There, the distances were not measured by trees or telephone poles, but by craters. The movement on the moon was quite difficult. They had to start and stop with exertion. 22

Q. 3.  Describe the astronauts walk on the moon and their feelings.

Or  To what does Scott implicitly compare the weightlessness experienced on the lunar surface?

Or       What other such experience does he describe through comparisons?

Their walk on the moon was very slow and bumpy. They could not walk fast. But a lot of exertion was required to walk and step on the moon. When they had to step ahead, they had to thrust their body forward. If they wanted to stop, they had to sink their heels and lean backward. They were not hurt if they fell; because their weight was very less. As the moon’s gravity is one-sixth of that of the earth, their weight had decreased to one-sixth of their weight on the earth. During walk they had to keep oxygen with them.

On the moon they felt a strange sense of freedom as they were the only living beings there. They could move freely wherever they wished as there were no obstacles on their way and nobody to block their way. But there were certain other problems. Walking on the moon was not as easy as that on the earth. Anyhow they felt a strange pleasure in their slow motion on the moon. 172

7. My Grandfather

Q.1      Why didn’t the writer and his uncle think it wrong to outwit                the grandfather’s violence and rigour?

“My Grandfather”, a touching piece of prose by W.B. Yeats contains delicate memories of his childhood and sincere and thankful account of the glimpses of his grandfather. Yeats narrates that, despite all his admirations and alarms neither he nor his uncle thought it wrong to outwit (deceive) the violence or rigidity of his grandfather. He added that his grandfather’s innocence and lack of suspicion made easy for them to outwit his violence and rigor.

He points out that one night his uncle asked him to ride to Rosses Point, to borrow a railway pass from a cousin. His grandfather also had a railway Pass, but to him, it was unlawful to use someone else’s pass. His cousin was, however not so particular in this regard. Yeats, rode and took the railway pass from his cousin and returned home by two or three in the morning.  

To Yeats, his grandfather would never think of such an adventure. He believed that every night at eight, the stable-yard was locked and he was brought the key. He locked the doors of the home but writer’s uncles and servants know how to go out at the nights. Due to strict discipline and principles, but the lack of suspicion of his grandfather, he, the writer and his uncles did not think it was wrong to outwit the violence and vigour of his grandfather. 228

Q.2      What is the “something in myself” which Yeats felt that he                    gradually conquered during his life

Or       “Indeed I remember little of childhood but its pains” and “my              miseries were not made by others but were a part of my own                                                      mind.”

Or       Describe the strict atmosphere of the Grandfather house.

The writer in the beginning of the essay points out that he had “Something in himself” which he gradually conquered during his life. This something was the unknown fear of his grandfather who was stout, energetic and strict disciplinarian.

The grandfather was a disciplined man. He also maintained it in his house. For example none was allowed to eat between meals. Breakfast was served at 9 am and diner at 4 p.m. the stable door was locked at 8 p.m. No body could go out after that.  Children had to be in formal dress. Such things caused uneasiness among the children that.

His uncles sometimes broke the discipline but Yeats never did so for the fear of being punished. He remained under constant fear and nervousness besides this fact he was never treated harshly or punished. Yeats did not like that the rules should be applied equally to the elders and the younger. The Grandfather must have realized that the children needed a little freedom every now and then.

This is why Yeats says, “Indeed I remember little of childhood but its pains” and “my miseries were not made by others but were a part of my own mind.” He felt very lonely and had unknown fears. However, his fears of childhood vanished as he grew up. He was growing happier with every year of life as though gradually conquering something in himself. So he had developed a psychological fear. 240

Q.3    Justify the space and detail devoted to yeast grandparents.

Or       Why does yeats include a comparison of his grandmother                    with his grandfather?

“My Grandfather” by Yeas is based on his recollection of his maternal relations. His grandfather and grandmother stand out of all these relations. Yeats grandmother was a sharp contrast to his grandfather. She was a woman of very gentle polite and charitable nature. She feared his husband temperament. She did very noble deeds at home. At night she would go round the house if there were not any thief. She was true lover of flowers. She was also a lover of Chinese paintings. She also could paint beautifully on rice paper. Her handwork was wonderful and delicate. The grand father was also a lover of Chinese painting. His favorite books were “The Bible” and “Falconer’s Shipwreck”. He was proud and did not like his neighbor.

But grandmother was very kind and helped the needy. The grandmother was apposed to grandfather in temperament. He was harsh and strict while she was benevolent. She, however, cared that grandfather was satisfied about his principle. She was not very strict about looking after the stable as the grandfather demanded. She did only the convenience of the stable man. It shows her benign attitude towards the servants. It also indicates that she was a good house manager and could solve the problems at her discretion. Grandmother was kind and affectionate lady. The writer remembers that she punished him only once on some childish indecency. He was not allowed to come to the dinning table and had to take his meal all by himself. 248

(8) My Tailor

Q: 1    Bring Out The Element Of Humor In Leacock’s Essay “My                      Tailor”

It is true that “My Tailor” is a humorous essay. Stephen Leacock is a great comic writer. He has written many humorous essays and stories. His humor is light, harmless and free from bitterness. In this essay his humor is based on characterization. He describes the behavior of his tailor in an amusing way. He mixes humor in the professional manners of his tailor and makes the essay very delightful.

First, we see that the tailor shows the suit material to his customer on his bended knee with one leg in the air. He thinks that when he is in this condition; it is difficult for a customer to resist him. The writer is fully aware that he is doing it only to flatter him. The writer also tells us that his tailor always talks about weather while his tailor ends with it. Further, the writer always found his tailor standing in the back part of his shop with his tape around his neck. Here, the joy of humor is mixed with pain and pathos.175

Q: 2    What is the moral of the essay?

There is I am certain, a deep moral in this. But I will not try to draw it.

The essay “My Tailor” has a deep moral for the readers. In the last lines of the essay, the writer says, “There is I am certain, a deep moral in this. But I will not try to draw it. It might appear too obvious.” Through this essay we come to know that all the glittering things may not bound to be glittering.

During the long association of thirty years with the tailor, the writer always found him calm, composed and happy. He never looked worried or disturbed. He seemed as if he had no passions, no attachments, no worries and no problems in life. To the writer he seemed to be an immortal and he would stay there for ever dealing with his customers in the same delightful manner.

But the writer was shocked on his tailor’s sudden death. Then he knew all what he did not know about his tailor. His business was not going well and his health was also failing. He further discovered that he had an ailing wife and a daughter who were left in a bad situation. He was fond of music. He was a sideman of the church. He was a staunch Christian. He felt sorry for the poor tailor. He had never suspected him of being worried or under financial pressure.

The writer felt sorry and for being ignorant of his domestic liabilities and his personal interests in religion and music. In a way he considered himself partly responsible for his untimely death. Hence all the glittering things are not bound to be glittering. 261

Q: 3    What has the tailor in “My tailor to hide?

The writer had been dealing with his tailor for thirty long years. He always found him a very happy, calm and satisfied man. He always welcomed the writer with a smiling face. He never looked worried or disturbed. He seemed as if he had no passions, no attachments, no worries and no problems in life. The writer knew him as a tailor not as a man. He had never tried to know his personal life. He did not even know his name. The tailor seemed to be a statue not a man. His inner life remained hidden from him.

But the writer was shocked on his tailor’s sudden death. Then he knew that his business was not going well and his health was also failing. He further discovered that he had an ailing wife and a daughter who were left in a bad situation. He was fond of music. He was a sideman of the church. He was a staunch Christian.

But in spite of thirty year association, the writer remained unaware of these facts. Their conversation was confined only to the business matters. The writer remained ignorant of his domestic liabilities and his personal interests in religion and music.

These all things were hidden from the writer.

He felt sorry that he had never bought anything other than suits from him. He felt sorry for the poor tailor. He had never suspected him of being worried or under financial pressure. His inner life remained hidden from the writer. 249

Q: 4    Why Does Leacock Regard The Tailor As “Immortal”?

            When the writer came to know of his tailor’s sudden death he was shocked. He thought that he should have lived for ever. He was like something fixed and permanent in the tailoring shop. The writer believed that he was an immortal figure. His belief was based on his past experience. He had been dealing with him for the last thirty years. He had always found him at the same place and in the same posture. He always stood in the back part of his shop with a measuring tape around his neck.

            He always welcomed the writer with a smiling face. He spread the suit material on his lifted knee to show it to the writer. He measured only his chest and flattered him saying that it was a little fuller than before. Then he would ask the writer if he needed anything in shirtings and hosiery. In the end he talked about weather. The date of delivery was always a weak from Tuesday. The billing and the payment was always done by correspondence.

The writer had never seen any change in the behavior of his tailor. His posture, his speech and his movements remained unchanged for such a long time. So, the writer expected that his tailor would always be there standing and greeting his customers. In fact, the writer saw only the business side of his personality. His inner life remained hidden from him. 237

(7) Beauty Industry

Q: 1    Beauty industry calls annual expenses of one hundred and                   fifty six million pounds on make up ‘A Tidy Sum’ why?

Or       What is beauty industry? What are the views of Huxley about              the beauty industry?

In this essay, Huxley describes in an amusing manner that the women of America spend a huge amount of money to decorate their faces. According to an estimate, this expenditure is more than three million pounds a week and one hundred and fifty six million pounds on make up. It is ‘A Tidy Sum’. The author says that American women spend more money on their beautification than twice the revenue of India. The wrier says, “Even the great depression could not beat down American Women’s habit of make up.” The general economic depression had not affected the beauty industry. The production and sale of cosmetics continued as usual because American women spent as much as they used to do before depression. The magazines were full of advertisements of cosmetics.

As compared to the American woman, a European woman can do with a piece of soap. The craze to look beautiful on the part of an American woman has given birth to beauty industry.

Now the face creams, the exercises and the health motors and the skin foods are used to add to the physical charms. Then there are massage machines and belly-reducing belts to make them physically smart. Some ladies undergo surgical operations to get rid of wrinkles of old age. All such attempts have given rise to a vast beauty industry in America. 224

Q: 2    What are causes of development of beauty industry?

Or       How does Beauty Industry come into being?

Or       Why are women so fond of beautification?

Or       Why do women spend so much money on cosmetics?

According to Huxley there are three factors responsible for the development of beauty industry.

First there is a general increase in prosperity. The rich have always paid more attention to their personal appearance. They are richer than they used to be in past. They have sufficient money to spend on cosmetics for the decoration of their faces. The beautification of bodies has become a popular practice.

Second there is a change in the status of women. The women are freer than in the past. They are freer to attend social functions. At the same time, they have the privilege to look more attractive. In the past, the decoration of face was considered a wicked thing. The spread of education has changed this trend. It is no longer considered a sign or moral corruption. Now beauty is considered a sign of good health. Ugliness is associated with some ailment.

            Thirdly there is change in outlook and attitude. Now there is a general awareness among common people that body has also its rights. They believe that body is as important as soul for a balanced personality. They think that it is their duty to look after their face and body well so that they look healthy, strong and attractive. Religious restrictions no longer trouble them. 213

Q:3     How is the campaign for physical beauty a success and a                       failure at the same time?

Or       The campaign for more physical beauty seems to be both a                  tremendous success and a lamentable failure. Discuss.

Huxley says that the campaign for more physical beauty seems to be both a tremendous success and a lamentable failure. He seems right in this contention. Women have a craze to look more beautiful with the help of artificial means. He has named it cult. The campaign is success to some an extent. Now more women retain their youthful appearance to a greater age than in the past. No old women are seen anywhere. Everywhere is youth and beauty. White hair, wrinkled faces, bent back, and hollow cheeks have become old fashioned. Skin-foods injections of paraffin-wax, facial surgery, mud-baths, and paint keep the women attractive and young. Mother and daughter cannot be distinguished today. In this way, the campaign seems to be a tremendous success.

But at the same time it also seems to be a lamentable failure. Women use cosmetics to retain their youthful appearance till later age. But in this cult of outer beautification they forget the beautification of inner self. It is a lamentable loss and failure. Real beauty is as much an affair of the inner as of the outerself. If the spirit is pious they will be pious. Otherwise spiritual emptiness or ugliness shows through their bodies. The writer says in a few years elderly people will become extinct and the values like regard, piety and goodness will also not be found in society. All the forms of ugliness and sins will be prevailing in society. 241

Q:4     Why and how does Huxley compare human body with a porcelain jar?

Huxley compares human body with a porcelain jar. The essay gives a clear outlook of the writer about the real beauty. The writer is of the view that real beauty is not what it appears outwardly. He deems it a folly on the part of women who paint their faces with beautiful creams.

Huxley says that real beauty has nothing to do with make up or cosmetics. It is very logical to compare the beauty of a woman with the beauty of a porcelain jar. A flower pot is beautiful outwardly but it may be empty from inside, or it may contain spiders.   Its inner side has no importance but its outward side matters. The beauty of a porcelain jar depends on its shape, colour and its texture. But a woman is not a decoration piece; a woman is a living being. A beautiful woman must be beautiful from inside as well. Mere outward attraction, as is the case of porcelain jar, is not sufficient. The writer remarks that real beauty involves the beauty of mind and soul.

A woman cannot become beautiful and impressive unless she is attractive inwardly. A woman can be beautiful only when her body as well as soul is beautiful. An impartial study of the essay forces us to agree with the writer real beauty is as much an affair of the inner as of the outer self. The matter of woman beauty is entirely different from the beauty of a porcelain jar. 248

Q: 5    What are the various forms of ugliness?

Huxley refers to make-up as ‘Repellant’. The writer being a social reformer tries to bring out the ugly aspects of human nature with a view to reforming them. The writer says that ugliness is the psyological or spiritual ugliness. The real beauty is the beauty of soul. It is a satire on the extravagant habit of fashionable women who disfigure themselves by over painting their faces.

The writer says sullenness and hardness spoil so many pretty faces. This hardness is due to the contemporary habit of over painting. It ruins the natural beauty and grace of the faces. The writer gives many forms of ugliness and sins. The ugliness may be of stupidity, greed, malice and avarice. He says that these all forms of ugliness and sins are the negation of beauty. Huxley concludes with his remark: “All men and women will be beautiful only when the arrangements give to everyone of them, an opportunity completely and harmoniously.

The essay gives us a moral lesson. The writer tries to preach that in our efforts to look beautiful, we must not ignore the spiritual beauty of our souls. We should get rid of our inner ugliness if we really want to become beautiful and charming. 204

Q.6   Point out the examples of irony and humour in Huxley’s essay “The Beauty industry.” 2010(S)

The essay “The   Beauty   Industry” is written in an ironic and humorous style. Irony is a mode of expression in which the meanings are opposite to the words spoken. The essay is replete with ironic remarks. The writer’s words “The Most that the majority of European women can do is just to wash and hope for the best.” are ironic. At another place he says ironically, “White-washed and ruddled they seem to be wearing mask.” The word “Cult” which means extreme devotion to the religious system has been used ironically to convey the extreme devotion to beautification. He ironically says, “We demand justice for the body as well as soul.” The American women do not want to look virtuous by remaining simple.

Humour is the quality to make others laugh by pointing out the follies in society. He humorously says, this expenditure is more than three million pounds a week.  One hundred and fifty six million pounds on make up is ‘A Tidy Sum’. His saying that American women spend more money on their beautification than twice the revenue of India is also humorous. He further says, “Even the great depression could not beat down American Women’s habit of make up.” The general economic depression had not affected the beauty industry. He says Europe is poor and face can cost as much in upkeep as a Rolls–Royce. He humorously says that old women are becoming rare and in a few years they will become extinct.

So we can say that he has criticized and satirized the cult of being beautiful in a mild ironic and humorous style with a moral purpose. 291

 (10) Are Doctors men of Science?

Q:1  “Doctoring is not even the art of keeping people in health”. How far you agree with Shaw?

Or    The rank and file of doctors are no more scientific than their tailors. Elaborate.

Or       Doctoring is an art not a science. Discuss.

Or       It is a popular delusion that every doctor is a man of science.

Shaw condemns the misconception that doctors are men of science. He says that science does not merely mean conjuring with retorts, spirits lamps, magnets or microscopes. It is a system and a method of research. He says that doctors are not better than their tailors. A man who reads scientific journals can develop scientific taste. He can tell what to eat and what not to eat. Even an elderly lady at home can tell what to eat and what not to eat.

Shaw says that doctoring is an art not science. It is not even the art of keeping people in good health. It is the art of curing illness only not of improving people’s health.

Shaw says that science is an other name of research. The doctors do not make any research in their field. They seem to be the agents of the pharmaceutical firms. They themselves do not make any intensive study of the ailments. They prescribe medicines as directed by Medical Representatives. Their main business is to collect money.

Hence Shaw is right in his contention, “Doctoring is the art of keeping people in health.” And doctors are not men of science. We have to agree with Shaw that doctors have failed in keeping people in good health. 211

Q:2     Is there any difference between Doctors and Quacks? Give       illustrations to prove your point.

Or       Discuss the difference between quacks and doctors. Relate the           story Bernard Shaw tells at the end of his essay. (P.U. 95-S)

Bernard Shaw does not find any difference between a quack and a doctor because both diagnose the diseases and then treat their patients in the same way. A quack is an unqualified doctor. Herbalists, bone-setters and hygienists all are quacks. In Shaw’s view, the only difference between a quack and a doctor is that a doctor is authorized to sign a death certificate; whereas a quack is not.

Shaw elaborates his point of view by relating the story of an old lady, one of his relatives. She consulted a doctor about the symptoms of the need for a holiday or change. After diagnosing her depression the doctor prescribed a strong dose of digitalis a drug for heart patients. After using the drug she did not die because she was quite strong. Instead of medicine she needed change and rest. A herbalist would have treated a heart patient and a farm labourer in the same way. Even heretical methods are used by some doctors. Quacks treat their patients with the help of herbs, plants, poisons, charms and spells; while the doctors prescribe patent medicines. Hence, there is no difference between the two. 193

Q:3    Write a note on quacks in Pakistan.

Or      Do quacks earn more than qualified doctors?

A quack is an unqualified doctor. Bernard Shaw says that quacks, all over Europe are earning more than qualified doctors. Pakistan is no exception. A large number of quacks in Pakistan are earning, rather earning more than qualified doctors. Majority of the population in Pakistan is middle or poor class. These classes of people can’t afford the high fees demanded by qualified doctors. Moreover the prices of the allopathic medicines are rising day by day. The people, therefore, consult homeopathic doctors or quacks who treat the people cheaply. Besides this, the quacks exploit the ignorance, illiteracy and superstition of the masses.

In this the quacks attract more patients than the qualified doctors do. Hence, they earn more. Another factor is that there is no law in the country prohibiting the quacks from practice. Sometimes deaths are caused by the treatment of quacks; but these are in rare cases. Unless a law against quacks is passed, their thriving practice will continue. 160

 (11) Hosts and Guests

Q: 1    How has the author categorized mankind in hosts and guests?

In this essay, the writer has classified mankind into host or guest on the basis of circumstances and temperaments. When a person invites an other person to dine with him and pays himself for the food, he is called Host and the person who just enjoys it, is called guest. This is called circumstantial difference. The writer says that it is our instinct to invite our near and dear ones to dinner and serve them with delicious dishes. At it, we feel happy and elated. To invite some friend is positive instinct whereas to accept the hospitality is negative instinct. The positive instinct of hospitality is commonly found in rich whereas the negative instinct is found in poor. But it does not mean that all the needy are not guests and all the rich are not hosts. It depends on their disposition and temperament. This is called temperamental difference.

The writer says that some people are born hosts and some are born guests. He claims to be a born guest. He says that boys are guests by nature till they grow up. At school once he got a box of twelve sausage rolls, but he did not invite his friends to share the sausage rolls with them. Guests are also of two kinds. One is parasite and the other is churl. Parasite is found in every ceremony even uninvited. He always likes to be a guest of others. Churl is in habit of finding fault with food. 247

Q:2     Write down why the hospitality is only a human virtue and is              missing among Animals.

            Max Beerbohm wrote his essay “Host and guests” with a purpose. He wanted to analyze the behavior of man as a social and hospitable being. He has exposed the so-called human virtue of hospitality in a comic and satirical style. First he differentiates man from animals saying that hospitality is exclusively a human quality. Animals do not invite other animals to share their food. A dog does not offer his bone to another dog. A cat never allows another cat to share her milk. Lions do not invite other lion to their den. Birds also do not keep their nests open. By nature, man too, does not like to offer anything to others. He has a strong desire for personal ownership.

            However, man has acquired this virtue during the long course of human development. As he became social and civilized, he learnt to be hospitable. In olden days it was not easy to offer or accept the invitation of a meal. An atmosphere of doubt, fear and uncertainty prevailed. The writer points out that the virtue of hospitality does not depend on financial position of a man. Being rich or poor does not persuade him to be a host or guest. It is entirely a temperamental quality. The history of hospitality is full of sad and shameful incidents. Many hosts killed or poisoned their honorable guests. 226

Q. 3.    Describe the history of man’s hospitality.

Or       How did man learn to be hospitable?

Or       write down the development of instinct of hospitality.

            The history of man’s hospitality is very long. It can be traced back to the time when man lived in caves. People of the caves were not hospitable at all. They never invited other cavemen to their caves. They suspected and feared one another. They feared that their guest might kill them. Similarly the guest feared that he might be killed by his host. They, therefore, avoided to act as hosts or guests. Red-haired men of ancient times never accepted anybody’s invitation to dine.

            According to Max Beerbohm hospitality is not a natural instinct of man. Man learnt hospitality at a very later stage “with the growth of civilization when he began to live in groups, families and tribes. After Stone Age he became civilized, hence hospitable. Life in society gave him some sense of security. He no more feared, like cavemen, that he would be killed by his host. From that time onward he began to extend invitation to his neighbours, friends and relatives, etc. who accepted his hospitality without any fear; and then returned the same as a good gesture. Since then people came to be known as hosts and guests. 193

Q.4      “In the annals of hospitality there are many pages that make               painful reading.” Discuss.

Or       Narrate some tragic incidents of hospitality from history.

            Having a look at history, we come to know that there were many selfish guests and selfish hosts. The history of hospitality has never been free from doubts and fears. The early caveman was afraid of going to other caves or inviting others to his own. He had a sense of insecurity. Still there are many sad incidents in which the hosts killed their guests mercilessly to take revenge. Many hosts of high positions killed or poisoned their honorable guests. Israelites, for example, were once the most civilized people of the world, but Jael brutally murdered her guests.

            Similarly the Greeks were a civilized nation, but the Greek hero Odysseus killed his guests in his house”. The Romans were a highly cultured nation in the fifteenth century, but Borgias, the Roman kings invited their guests, actually their enemies, to their cellars where they had concealed poisons, with which they were killed. The Roman people hesitated to dine with the Borgias. Similarly Macbeth and Lady Macbeth killed their guest, Duncan, the king of Scotland, in their palace.

            The behavior of hosts have been very insulting, shameful and barbaric towards there innocent guests. 191

Q.5      Discuss the qualities of a good host and a good guest.

            Max Beerbohm says in his essay that people are either hosts or guests by temperament  those who like to offer meal to others are hosts and those who like to enjoy the meal without paying the bill are guests. The writer says that the behavior of these two categories of human beings is different from each other. Here we shall discuss the qualities of good guests separately.

A good host is generous at heart and loves human beings. He is not proud and egoist who tries to impress others by his hospitality. A good host invites his friends and relatives to dine for his own pleasure. Dickens character of olla Wardle is an example of good host.

            A good guest shows his hearty gratitude to his host. He is often a source of beauty, truth and inspiration. A good guest accepts hospitality and always thanks for it.  Whereas a bad guest is never satisfied and has always complains. The famous philosopher Dante Furnishes is a good example. He always finds faults with his hosts after enjoying there hospitality. The parasite lives completely on others. He is an unwanted guest. He is always hungry. But he thanks his host at the end of meal. The writer declares that he himself was more a guest than a host. 216

(12) Bachelor’s Dilemma

Q.1      What are the real problems of a bachelor?

Or       What is the dilemma of a bachelor as depicted in Hubert                       Gold’s “the Bachelor’s Dilemma.”2005

Or       How does a bachelor fair in American society? 2005

In this essay Herbert gold has analyzed the problems of a confirmed bachelor in general. A bachelor is an unmarried man. He hangs between love and marriage as an acrobat swings in a circus. He faces many problems in his daily life. He is not fairly treated in American society.

 In a social gathering no body understands his position or intention well. Every one looks at him from his personal angle of view. Every one passes different judgment about him. For example, in a party a married woman admires him and considers him better than her husbands. He does not always snore like her husband. A husband takes him as a fortunate person as he is still free from the traps of a woman. A young girl finds in him a possible catch and tries to entrap him.

A sense of loneliness is another problem faced by a chronic bachelor. He is always in search of a beautiful girl who may prove ideal wife for him. But his efforts never succeed. Although he gets tension and entertainment from young ladies or all his would be wives yet he cannot get rid of boredom and loneliness. He may go on a world trip but he will be still lonely. He does not know how to spend his evenings. He is irregular in his habits. He eats unhealthy foods and often suffers from indigestion ulcer.

One of his marriage problems is to satisfy his sexual urge. He can afford to buy all luxuries of life. He keeps himself well dressed and graceful like mail models. But in his search for true love he is permanently disappointed and deceived. It is very rare that he succeeds in finding his dream girl. As compared to married man he remains dissatisfied with his achievements and often dies early. 303

 (13) Tolerance

Q. 1     What is required for the reconstruction of a nation?

Or       Give writer’s views on tolerance.

Or       What is the importance of love and tolerance in the society?

Or       Write a note on tolerance.

In this essay “Tolerance” E.M Forster throws light on the value of tolerance in the reconstruction of the world after world war second. Some people say that a particular state of mind is required for the reconstruction of nation. This state of mind is love. EM Forster does no agree to this view. He says love is a vital force in family/ private affairs but it does not work in public affairs. It has been tried in history but it has always been failed. He says love may be in practice with the people whom we know. We can not love strangers or our enemies. The English can not love Germans after the World War II. Love cannot be practiced universally.

According to E.M Forster two things are required for the reconstruction of civilization. One is a sound attitude of mind and other is a right psychology. It means that unless there is awareness and desire to change and improve the condition, nothing solid can really be done. The writer says in public affairs we need tolerance.

It is a spiritual quality which is most needed in the after war conditions. The writer tells that tolerance does not mean weakness or defeat. It is only putting up with people who have different ideas and views from us. It is the only virtue and force by which different races, classes and nations can succeed in the work of reconstruction of nation. 240

Q. 2     What is the ‘NAZI’ solution of dealing with the people one does not like? What is fanaticism? Explain.

The writer says that every person has fanaticism which means excessive intolerance of opposing views. Every person has racial prejudice. The writer gives the example of racial prejudice of Nazis. They claimed that they were the best nation of the world and all the other nations were inferior and had no right to live. They were deadly against the Jews so they not only killed them mercilessly but also banished them. They adopt Nazi Solution to deal with the people. “Nazi” solution means if you do not like people, kill them, banish them or segregate them. Tell them that they are not fit to live in this world. The writer maintains that such a solution is unrealistic because it creates violence.

The other solution is less and less dramatic. But this is a practical and reasonable solution of the problems of the world. The writer is in favour of it. It is based on tolerance. It suggests us to tolerate those whom we do not like. On the basis of tolerance, a civilized future may be built. He points out that the disputes and quarrels of the nations can be settled down, if they begin to live with one another on the basis of tolerance. We must check fanaticism and spread tolerance if we want to rebuild this world as a peaceful and safe place. 225

Q. 3     Is tolerance a weakness? Or Tolerance is not the same as weakness. Explain?

E.M. Forster says that tolerance does not mean weakness or defeat. It is only putting up with people who have different ideas and views from us.

Tolerance and Weakness are different from each other. It is some time equated with weakness and cowardice because many great men dislike tolerance. The writer says that St. Paul and Dante were great men but they disliked tolerance. He also talks of those great men who were in favour of tolerance. Buddhist Emperor Asoka, Dutch Schollaw Erasmus, Montaigno, John Lock, Sydney and Smith were in favour of tolerance and they testified this virtue. He who tolerates other people different from him is not weak or coward. The person who bears hostile views and ideas is brave. Tolerance is the only virtue and force by which different races, classes and nations can succeed in the work of reconstruction of nation. Tolerance is the spiritual quality which is most needed in the after war conditions. If we start living with other with tolerance, love may be born later on. By this we may reconstruct the world speedily and more solidly, but it is not all possible without tolerance.  192

Q. 4    “It is to easy to see fanaticism in other people, but difficult to                                             spot it in oneself.” Is it really so?

               At the end of the essay, Forster remarks that it is very easy to see fanaticism in other people but it is difficult for us to spot it in ourselves. Fanaticism means excessive intolerance of opposing views.  According to him it is a great hindrance in the reconstruction of a great universal civilization.

We can condemn nazis for suffering from racial prejudice but we have never ever seen how much guiltless or racial prejudice is in us.

                                                                                                No doubt, the reformers have been preaching tolerance to promote peace and prosperity in the world but the majority of the people are ego-centric. They see and note fanaticism in others but they are unable to root it out from their own personality. Forster stresses, upon the fact that tolerance is not a weakness at all. Putting up with people does not mean surrender before them. If we start living with other with tolerance, love may be born later on which we may reconstruct the world speedily and more solidly, but it is not all possible without tolerance.  175

 (14) On Saying Please

Q.1      Law does not do so much to make social interaction sweet and           smooth as to do the good manners.

Or       “Discourtesy is not a legal offence.” Discuss.

Or       Why did the liftman throw the passenger out of the lift?

In this essay, the writer tells us that there is no legal punishment against discourtesy and bad manners because they are not legal offences. Law does not do so much to make social interaction sweet and smooth as to do the good manners. No law compels us to be civil or courteous to others. Law can punish one for some physical offence only. It can punish a thief, a burglar or one who physically attacks us. We can’t box people’s ears for misbehaving with us or being discourteous to us.

The writer gives the example of a liftman to clarify this point. Once a passenger who wanted to go to the top of a building said “Top” to the liftman. The liftman threw him out of his lift because he expected of him to say “Top please”. It means that the liftman punished the passenger for being discourteous to him.

The liftman was fined for throwing the passenger out of the lift because he was not justified in doing so. The liftman was legally at fault in throwing the passenger out of the lift. The passenger was morally at fault on not saying “Please” to him. Therefore he was not legally punishable, but the liftman, on the other hand, was legally punishable as he had physically attacked the passenger. Hence he was fined. 223

Q.2: “If bad manners are infectious, so also are good manners.”                      Elaborate.

            Manners are not laws but they have a hold on our lives like laws. The writer makes a comparison between good and bad manners.  He says that bad manners of one person influence others and make them also rude and ill-tempered. Similarly, good manners of one person also affect others and make them polite and kind. “Saying Please” is one of the good manners and show courtesy and politeness of the speaker. Good and bad manners spread quickly from one person to the other like a contagious disease. As we live in a society the ways and manners of people are bound to affect others.

In this connection the writer gives the example of a bus conductor. One day the writer boarded a bus without any money in his pockets. He told the conductor that he would not pay the fare. He was afraid that the conductor would make him get off the bus contemptuously. But he was surprised when the good-mannered conductor gave him the ticket and told him to pay the fare next time. The writer was greatly pleased with his attitude. On some other day the conductor trampled on the writer’s foot. He immediately said “Sorry sir”. The writer excused him for being courteous. He had won the writer’s sympathy. His passengers could not help being nice and polite to him. Therefore, the writer has rightly said that good or bad manners are like infections that travel from person to person leaving its sweet or bitter taste in the environment 239

Q.3:    How did the writer feel and behave when he discovered                        while in Bus that he had no money on him?

Or       How did the bus conductor win the hearts of his passengers?

Or       Our good manners prove that respect others regardless of the           station or status. Elaborate.

            The writer lays emphasis on the importance of being courteous, polite and civil to others. By saying “Please” or “Thank you” we can win people’s hearts. We can befriend others by simply uttering such words as cost nothing.  In this context he relates the story of a bus conductor who had won the hearts of his passengers and writer’s with his good manners and politeness.

In this connection the writer gives the example of a bus conductor. One day the writer boarded a bus without any money in his pockets. He told the conductor that he would not pay the fare. He was afraid that the conductor would make him get off the bus contemptuously. But he was surprised when the good-mannered conductor gave him the ticket and told him to pay the fare next time. The writer was greatly pleased with his attitude. On some other day the conductor trampled on the writer’s foot. He immediately said “Sorry sir”. The writer excused him for being courteous. He had won the writer’s sympathy. A blind man often travelled by his bus. The conductor not only helped him get down easily but also conducted him across the road. He behaved with the old as a son, with the children as father and with the young as a jolly fellow. By travelling in his bus the passengers learnt courtesy and good manners.  He taught to respect other regardless of the station or status. 241

Q:4     Write a note on the sweetness of Lord Chesterfield .

Or       Why does the writer recommend the story of Chesterfield to the       liftman ‘On saying please’? (P.U. 2007) or

Or       How can we spread good manners ?

Manners are not laws but they have a hold on our lives like laws. The writer says that bad manners of one person influence others and make them also rude and ill-tempered. Similarly, good manners of one person also affect others and make them polite and kind. “Saying Please” is one of the good manners and show courtesy and politeness of the speaker. Good and bad manners spread quickly from one person to the other like a contagious disease. Bad manners spread by behaving badly with an ill mannered person and good manners spread by ignoring the bad behaviour of a rude person. The writer says it is always better to answer a frown with a smile to make an ill-mannered person feel ashamed of his conduct

When liftman throws out the discourteous person out of his lift, the writer recommends the story of Chesterfield’s goodness and asks the liftman to be inspired by his good conduct. He says, Lord Chesterfield, on one rainy day, was passing through a muddy street. The path near the wall was rather dry and safe. He wanted to walk on the dry path but the man who was coming from the opposite side being very rude refused to leave the dry place and said “I never give the wall to a scoundrel”. Lord Chesterfield did not take it ill and said, “I always do”. This showed the good breeding of Lord Chesterfield. The liftman would agree that Chesterfield’s revenge was much sweeter than if he had flung the fellow into mud. 257

 (15) To Err is Human

Q.1.     To what extent do computers resemble human beings?

Or       How   does   Thomas distinguish the reasoning of             each?1999,2002,   2005

Or       Discuss the similarities and dissimilarities between computer            and human beings

Or       Do you think that computer share weaknesses of human beings?      

            Computer is an extension or developed form of human brain. Computers resemble human beings in the sense that they possess the faculty of committing errors or making mistakes. Just like human brains computers can think and act clearly. Some computers also write verses which are obscure. They can think, add, subtract, multiply and divide. They can do everything; but they lack one human faculty consciousness. Like human brains, computers are based on committing errors. As a matter of fact, committing errors is the secret of the progress of human beings as well as of computers. Many choices or options lie before us and we have to choose between the right and the wrong. Then in the course of life we learn by “trial and error” and not by “trial and rightness.” Computers function by the same principle. Some employee of a company, who feeds the computer commits an error, but afterwards the error is rectified. This is a constant process.

Anyhow, there is some difference between human reasoning and that of computers. Computers cannot think, dream, decide and act freely as they are always fed by human beings. They don’t have consciousness. Hence they can’t act on their own. Human beings or human brain, on the other hand, can act, dream, decide and think freely. 215

Q. 2.    Discuss the importance of making mistakes?

Or       We learn from errors and trials.2002

Or       What is the thesis/main idea of the essay?

Or       what are the advantages of being fallible? How human progress        is linked with it?

Or       What is gained in the exposition by the comparison with           computers?

Or       Do you think that progress of mankind is linked with the          committing of mistakes? Or what is the thesis of the Essay?

Or       What consequences of the human kind of reasoning does         Thomas explore?

All the progress made by man down the ages is because of fallibility or the faculty of making mistakes. Animals have not made any progress in the world because they have neither consciousness nor make mistakes. Human beings progress depends on the process of “trial and error” not on “trial and Tightness”. By following this process we can distinguish the right from the wrong. Sometimes there are ten or twenty different choices, but only one is wrong. We can call this process “exploration”. It depends on fallibility. Had there been only one centre in human brain, mankind would never have made such tremendous progress.

Computers also commit errors like human beings rather because of human beings; because they are fed or operated by human beings. Often wrong bills or data are issued. “Somebody makes a mistake somewhere”, then this mistake is rectified. Unlimited wrong options are must for progress both for human beings and computers. After every mistake we try to reform ourselves. This is the secret of progress, hence success. That is why the writer says, “What is needed, for progress to be made, is the move based on error.” Hence Fallibility is the key to progress. 210

Q.3.  Does Thomas explicitly say that non-human beings or things cannot possess the human faculty of reasoning?

            The other creatures or non-human beings do not possess DNA sequences which are necessary for making mistakes. They don’t have consciousness and reasoning. They can’t think, act, behave, quarrel and think like human beings. They, therefore, don’t have the freedom of choice between right and wrong. For instance, cats and fish never make mistakes, but dogs occasionally do so by mimicking their masters. Like human beings, animals can’t make an open and free choice. Human beings had a wide choice. Most often we have ten or even more choices out of which only one is wrong. This is the key to our progress in life.

There is a difference between mechanism of human brain and that of other creatures. Non-human creatures have only one centre or mechanism; whereas human beings have a complex brain which has a large number of cells. This complex mechanism and fallibility distinguish human beings from other animals or non-human creatures. 155


Q.1. Define gossip and trace its origin.  Or How is gossip faintly immoral?

            Gossip means idle talk about neighbours, friends or relatives. People gossip just to pass time. It is often baseless. In most of the cases it is concerned with the private affairs of others. The basic purpose of gossip is to pass or kill time or just to amuse oneself or others. But some people gossip to criticise, degrade or scandalise others. In that sense gossip is faintly immoral. Gossip should never touch the private or moral life of a person. It should be used to know, but not to harm others.

Gossip has always been a source of pleasure and information. In pre-historic days cavemen gossiped to know about their neighbours. Through gossip we can know about the customs, habits, lives and cultures of our relatives, friends and other people. We can understand others through gossip. Those, who gossip to harm others or expose their weaknesses, misuse gossip. They don’t know the real purpose of gossiping. In ancient days there was no other means of entertainment for the people except gossip. They mainly resorted to gossip and story telling. Modern fiction can be traced to ancient gossip and story telling. 191

Q 2.     How is gossip different from “rumour_mongering” and “slander”? (P.U.95)

            Rumour mongering means to invent rumours about others. Rumour spreads rapidly from person to person and it is not real. During war or any other crisis people concoct rumours which spread fast and cause harassment among people.

            Slander means false statement about a person. Its only purpose is to damage the reputation of a person. Religious, political and business rivals often resort to slander. Gossip means idle talk about neighbours, friends or relatives. People gossip just to pass time. It is often baseless. In most of the cases it is concerned with the private affairs of others.

            Gossip   is   positive   and   constructive,   whereas   slander   and rumour_mongering are negative. By gossiping about others we want to develop some connection or link with them or we want to know about their community, its customs and traditions. Our main purpose is to understand others. By spreading rumours people want to harm a government, a country or a society. Often rumours cause harassment among the masses. It may topple a government.

            By spreading slander i.e. a false statement we want to damage the reputation of others for having some malice. Thus slander and rumour_mongering are negative and destructive whereas gossip is positive, constructive and harmless 201

Q. 3. “Everyone wants to gossip, hardly anyone wants to be gossiped           about.” Illustrate.

            It is a common habit of the people that they feel pleasure in gossiping about others in knowing the secrets, affairs and scandals of others, but they don’t tolerate that others should gossip about them. They don’t want that their own weaknesses should be exposed. That is why gossip about others often leads to quarrels among friends, relatives and neighbours. People are often very curious about the secrets of their relatives, friends and neighbours. Relatives and neighbours try to keep an eye on the happenings in the houses of their relatives and neighbours and then gossip about them. Sometimes the gossip affects the relation between relatives and neighbours. If gossip goes to this extent it turns to be immoral. The writer wants to point out that people should keep in view the basic motive behind the gossip that is pleasure and enjoyment. There should be no ill will behind it. If we feel pleasure in gossiping about others, we should not mind gossip about ourselves. 165

Q. 4. Differentiate between “gossip” and “information”.  (P.U.95)

The writer makes a clear difference between gossip and information by citing an example. “John got a new job” is an information but “Hey, did you hear John got fired” is gossip. The first sentence gives us some information about John, but the second one is purely meant to harm or scandalise him. The second sentence, in this sense, is negative and immoral. Information is, therefore, positive and useful; whereas gossip, though harmless, is sometimes used for negative purposes.

Q. 5. Why does Prose make the point that gossip has the qualities of             good fiction?

Gossip has the qualities of good fiction, because like that of fiction, the main purpose of gossip is to derive pleasure. It is the oldest form of fiction. The cavemen gossiped about their neighbours and animals, especially bisons. People generally gossip to derive pleasure or pass time. They read fiction with the same motive. Gossip is mainly concerned with the exaggerated incidents from the lives of friends, relatives and heroes. In fiction too we find real characters who behave and act as we do. As through fiction, we can learn through gossip about people, their lives and their origin.

Thus fiction is the developed form of gossip. Through gossip the people learnt the art of story telling. But gossip must be clear and authentic like fiction. The writer says that in spite of some objections gossip has the essential elements of good fiction. It is tool of communication and understanding. 150

 (17) Science and Values

Q. 1.    “There are certain things that our age needs, and certain things   that it should avoid”. Discuss in the light of Russell’s essay “Science and  Values.” 2002,2004, 2010 Sup

Or       Enumerate the good things science can increase and the bad things  it can decrease. (P.U.95)

            Russell explains how science can promote values, remove different social evils and bring peace and prosperity in the world. He being a pacifist desired peace and prosperity in the world.

            He says, “There are certain things that our age needs and certain things that it should avoid.”  Our age needs all the good things and should avoid all the bad things.

            Our age needs compassion, a wish for happiness, desire for knowledge, hope, democracy, peace, prosperity, birth control, the equal distribution of wealth and impulse for creativeness.

            Science can increase good things. It has spread education on a large scale. Increase in education has provided opportunities for young men to rise to high positions. It has led to happiness and prosperity in the world. The results of the use of science and spread of education are seen in Britain and America. Science has done miracles in medicine. Death rate has been reduced with the discovery of vaccination and anaesthetics. Science has also reduced crime rate by street lighting, telephone, finger printing and the psychology of crime.

            Science has also helped us get rid of bad things. Fanatical creeds encourage hatred, tussle and impede free inquiry. Dread of the hydrogen bomb can lead to its use. People sick of their problems, wish for death. It can be removed by hope, love, courage and optimism. To bring peace and prosperity in the world, war, nationalist propaganda, evil passions, lust for power, hatred, intolerance and mutual distrust between East and West must be eliminated. 251

Q. 2.    How far has science succeeded in controlling evil passions in human nature?

Or       what according to Russell are things which are an enemy to     human happiness and human progress?

Or       The chief causes of violence are love for power, competition hate     and fear. 2003

            According to Russell there are many evil passions which are an enemy to human happiness and human progress. Some of them are fanaticism, hatred, fear, despair, suspicion, intolerance and lust for power. The fear of war or the fear of the use of atom bomb or hydrogen bomb has been looming over the world since the end of the Second World War. This fear leads to death wish among people. People develop some suspicions about others and can no longer rely upon others. They can’t tolerate difference of opinion in politics and religion. This intolerance leads to disputes and quarrels among people and nations. Suspicion and intolerance is turned into hatred which results in wars. Fanatical creeds also lead to hatred among the people. Lust for power is the source of great trouble in the world.

            However, science has, to some extent, controlled or suppressed these evil passions due to spread of education and democracy. Education has helped people suppress fear, suspicion and superstitions. Democracy has trained them to tolerate their religious and political opponents. Democracy has also taught people to share power with others. Therefore, they don’t have intense lust for power. 193

Q. 4.    How does Russell condemn fanatical creeds? (P.U.95)

Or       How does Russell prove that all the financial creeds are harmful

            to mankind? 2001

Or       the desire of fanatical creeds is one of the greatest evils of our           time. Discuss

            A fanatical creed means a belief based on extreme enthusiasm. The world is full of fanatical creeds and they are very harmful to mankind. They often arise from fear and despair. In history the holders of one fanatical creed have often persecuted the holders of other creeds. In 16th century Roman Catholics and Protestants persecuted each other. Similar was the case in the Roman Empire. Roman Emperors persecuted their rivals. Most of the ancient battles were the outcome of fanatical creeds. The holders of one creed use force against the holders of other creed as they fear to lose power. Priesthood in power wants to maintain status too. Similarly political parties and governments adhere to their fanatical creed and use force against their opponents.

Thus fanatical creed is the most harmful evil of our time. Now we come across Christian and Communist fanatical creeds. Fanaticism also results from fear of atom bomb or hydrogen bomb or despair. It ultimately leads the people to wish for death. It wanes their hope and courage to face life. Hope, courage, love and optimism can rid the people of fanatical creeds. 187

Q. 5.    How far has science succeeded in the banishing poverty from             the world?

            Science has succeeded in eliminating poverty from European countries, especially America and Britain; but the process is slow in Eastern countries. Poverty can be minimised by raising people’s standard of living. Science has raised people’s standard of living by spreading general education, by increasing production through industry, by curing dangerous diseases, by improving sanitary conditions and by quick transportation methods. Education gives opportunities to young people to use their talent to acquire big posts. It leads them to improve their standard of living. Education opens more chances for employment. Different inventions and discoveries have increased agricultural and industrial production. Science has controlled death rate. Now every family has more earning hands that can improve the lot of the family and thus reduce poverty. Now people are more prosperous than their forefathers. They enjoy more comforts of life than ever before. Science can eliminate poverty totally if it succeeds in ending war from the world. But ending the war from the world seems to be a remote possibility. 167

Q. 6.    Discuss Russell’s views about a single world authority or          government.

Bertrand Russell visualised a single world authority or government which could abolish war from the world and solve all the disputes. He proposed that it should control all the military power of the world, maintain an international army and regulate competition in the world. By abolishing war it can remove fear and hatred from the world, leading to peace and prosperity.

Russell’s dream of a single world could not come true during his lifetime. After the disintegration of USSR, America has appeared to be the single superpower in the world. She dictates her policies all over the world through UN, which has become almost a puppet in her hands. She can impose economic sanctions against any country of the world which goes against her policies. Any country can be declared a terrorist state. She declared Lybia and Iran terrorist states. She declared a war against Iraq and imposed economic sanctions against her. After the disintegration of USSR and the end of cold war she has waged an undeclared war against the Muslim states.

Russell’s dream of a single world authority has come true in the form of America. She neither has established an international army nor abolished war. Her policies, especially New World Order are escalating war, rather than abolishing it. As long as she imposes her own policies she can’t solve world problems.

Q.7. Evolution from agriculture to industry was positive and   progressive.

Pleasant illusions can do a lot of harm sometimes. Something looks good but actually it is not good. So is the case of science. Science can diminish poverty and excessive hours of labour. Before the development of agriculture, man needed only two or more square meals to keep alive. Then agriculture got technical advancement along with more and better production. But it introduced slavery and serfdom, human sacrifice, absolute monarchy and large wars. It also increased population. Man was used by landowners as their slave for the promotion of agriculture. Then industry came. Evolution from agriculture to industry was positive and progressive. With the growth of industry, democracy developed. It brought a revolution in the lives of people. They got jobs and their living standard improved. Only agriculture could not change the lives of the people. Fortunately, industry and democracy grow together. Standard of life depends mainly on democracy, trade unionism and birth control but these things have always been exploited by the rich. If these three things are extended to the rest of the world, poverty and extended hours of labour can be diminished. Russell says agriculture and progress in industry have solved the problems of man but they failed to end the human misery and unhappiness.  225

|(18) Super

Q;1   Since we now live in a world of super-things we might expect them to be made by a race of Supermen. Discuss.

We are living today in an age of super things. We have super-soaps, super-toothpastes, super-music, super-cloth; but we don’t have supermen, super-tailors, super-mechanics and super-poets etc. For the last some years the prefix super has been in such a wide use that it has lost its utility. To enhance the importance of everything we want to use the word before it; even if it may be of sub-standard. We might expect that these super products have been made by a race of supermen; but this is not the case. No tailor wants to be called super-tailor for making super-trousers. No doctor calls himself a super-doctor for conducting a successful operation. These things are made by ordinary men, not by supermen. They may have special skill in doing or making something but they can’t be called supermen.

The word “super” is, therefore, being used just to impress upon the people the superior quality of something. As paper-money is losing its value day by day, super things are also losing their importance. People are no longer impressed by super-cigarettes, super-chocolates because they are not superior to ordinary ones. The race of supermen in history was more proud of their personal qualities than their things. 202

Q. 2.      Trace the origin of the word “Super”.

             The prefix “super” is used before something to signify its superior quality. It was first of all used before the word “man” by Nietzche, a German philosopher. Then the English playwright George Bernard Shaw used the word “Superman” as the title of his play “Man and Superman”. After that this word came to be used widely. Now it has almost become a fashion or a craze to use this word before each and every product. Now there are super-soaps, super-toothpastes, super-cigarettes, super-chocolates, super-coffee and super-tea, etc. These things are not, in fact, superior in quality. They are as good or as bad as common products.

Q. 3.    Can you point out some examples to illustrate how frequently            the prefix “Super” is being used in our own country?

Publicity and advertisements are the order of the day. Our country can’t lag behind in this rat race. Everyday new techniques and new methods of ads are being invented by industrialists. Millions of rupees are being lavishly spent on ads. There are ads on radio, TV, video cassettes, cinema screen and neon-signs.

The prefix “Super” is being widely used nowadays to show the superior quality of some product. It is rather used to increase its sale because it is not of that super quality as it is propagated. On our radio and TV a number of commercials are daily broadcast and telecast. Our newspapers and magazines are full of ads of different products. A drama of one-hour duration has almost twenty-minute-duration ad in it. We have super-toothpastes, super-soaps, super-cigarettes, super-garments, super-tonics, super-tea and super-music, etc.

The word “Super” is actually used to befool the customers or consumers because often a super-soap or a super-toothpaste is of inferior quality. It is a sugar-coated pill of poison given to the consumers to entice them to buy the latest models of certain things and to discard the old things.

Its widespread use has outlived its utility. 193

(19 ) From some police men and a moral

Q.1.  What were the police charges against G.K. Chesterton? Why was he acquitted?

The essay is a criticism on the behaviour of the policemen and their methods of investigation. The writer narrates an incident of his life when he was held by two policemen for interrogation and then acquitted.

Once, the writer was on a holiday in Yorkshire (England). He was practising knife-throwing by which the people killed each other in the past. He was throwing knife at a tree. Suddenly he is detained by two policemen who accuse him of damaging the tree. They asked his name, his address, his occupation his religion and his views on war. The writer told them that he worked as a journalist in the “Daily News”. He added that he lived in Yorkshire and that he was acquainted with the high-ups of the area. The head constable was highly impressed by the writer.

At this they respected and acquitted him. The writer was convinced that the police were impressed by rich people only. Had he been a common poor man they would have not acquitted him. 170

Q.2. “Policemen in Chesterton’s essay behave exactly like our own    policemen.” Elucidate.

The writer, in this short essay, presents a true picture of the behaviour of the policemen with the people. Their behaviour and treatment with people is not uniform. It varies from person to person. If the detained person is well-connected and resourceful he is immediately acquitted like the writer; otherwise- he is ill-treated. The writer was arrested and then interrogated just for nothing. They put him very odd questions, unconnected with the charge levelled against him. Then they acquitted him when came to know of his social status and contacts.

Policemen in our own country behave like this. They often detain innocent persons and then prolong the investigation. If the detained is a well-to-do person or has contacts with the high-ups he is readily acquitted, otherwise he is tortured and many times torture results in his death. If the accused greases their palm no harm comes to him. The people, on the whole, are scared of police. They hesitate to visit police posts for fear of being maltreated. The high-ups can get any criminal released from lock-up “, but the poor with no contacts have to suffer. Thus the police in Yorkshire, as narrated in the essay and that in our country behave in the same way.208

Q:3     What strange ideas arise in Chesterton’s mind on his acquittal?

            The essay is a criticism on the behaviour of the policemen and their methods of investigation. The writer narrates an incident of his life when he was held by two policemen for interrogation. Though the writer was acquitted, yet he was greatly disturbed. Strange questions occurred in his mind. He asked the tree why they acquitted him if he was damaging it? He wondered if the tree was a fairy whom they wanted to protect. Why did they disturb his freedom? Why they detained him for half an hour and put odd, irrelevant questions? He was surprised over the fact that they had acquitted him only because he had links with the high-ups of Yorkshire; otherwise they would have never set him free. He concluded that in that sense a journalist or a well-connected person, like him, could commit any crime. He imagined the suffering, at the hands of police, of a poor labourer who had committed the crime of damaging a tree. He would never have been released so easily. 171

(20) The Vitamins

Q.1      How do various vitamins keep body fit? 2007, 2004

Write an essay on the vitamins.

What is the importance of vitamin?

What are the water soluble and fat soluble vitamin? Write note on them.

This essay defines vitamins and describes their various sources and the effects of their deficiency on human body.

Vitamins are certain chemical elements necessary for health and growth of human body. They are essential ingredients of our food. Their deficiency or absence in human body causes different diseases and affects the growth of limbs and joints of the body. For example sailors on the ships of East India Company were attacked by scurvy. They were asked to use lemons and oranges. Beri beri, a disease that paralyses legs attacks those living in places with hard conditions as prisons or labour camps. During 1880 it attacked troops of the Japanese navy. Vegetables, fish, meat and barley were prescribed to them.

Vitamins are named after alphabets on the basis of their solubility in fats or in water. Vitamins A, D and E can be dissolved in fats and are called fat soluble. Vitamin A can be found in cod liver oil, butter and green vegetables. Its deficiency affects growth of young animals and weakens physical resistance and eye-sight: Vitamin D can be had from cod liver oil, animal fats, sunlight and irradiated vegetable oil. Its deficiency affects growth and formation of bones and causes rickets Food can be made more effective with ultra-violet light of the sun. Irradiated cod liver oil is also more effective than ordinary one. Vitamin E, or anti-sterility vitamin is available in leaves, seeds and common food. Its absence affects reproductive system. This is why childless couples are given doses of wheat-germ oil.

Vitamins that dissolve in water are B and C and are called water soluble vitamins.  Vitamin B is found in grain and yeast.  Its deficiency causes beri-beri and pellagra. Research has revealed that it contains six different substances of varying importance. We can get vitamin C from fresh vegetables, peas, beans. It is also found in fruits especially in lemons and oranges. Its deficiency causes scurvy. Hence we can say presence of all vitamins in suitable quantity is mandatory the growth and development of human body. 341

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