Details of Population
Since Independence the population of Pakistan has increased four-fold from 32.5 million in 1947 to 117.32 million on January 1,1992 of which :
47,063,000 live in Punjab
19,029,000 live in Sindh
11,062,000 in NWFP
4332,000 live in Baluchistan
2,198,00 live FATA
340,000 live in Islamabad
(FATA-Fedrally Administered Tribal Area)
Rate of Population Growth
The growth of Population depends upon the net addition of the people which is related to the behavior of three factors,migration,birth rate and death rate.
Pakistan being a developing country provides no attraction for the people from the other parts of the world and so the influence of migration on its population growth is almost negligible .It is therefore clear that the rate of population growth in the country is influenced by the difference between the birth and death rates.
Therefore, the high rate of growth is due to natural increase, that is,the excess of births over deaths.Pakistan has one of the highest rates of Population growth in the World.The population is increasing at the rate of 3.1% per anum as against 3.5% for Mexico,2.3% for India,2% for China,1.6% for U.S.A ,2% for Asia and Africa ,1% for Europe and average rate 1.8% for the whole world.At this speed of growth ,the total population by the year 2000 will touch 150 million.
Density of population refers to the number of people living per square km.Its study is important because through it the pressure on the land can be measured and also magnitude of the requirements of the people can be assessed .It also becomes the base for economic planning.
The density of population in Pakistan,according to the 1981 census,is estimated at 106 persons per sq.km.as against 82 persons in 1972 census.The density,however,varies widely between provinces.The Punjab has the highest density of 230 persons,compared to 12 persons per sq.km.for Baluchistan,135 for Sindh,148 for NWFP ,81 for FATA and 376 for Islamabad.
Causes of Difference in Density of Population
1.The more densely populated centres of Pakistan are situated in the Urban areas,which are the busiest centres of trade and commerce.Besides,so many industries have also developed around these areas.The surrounding areas,around Lahore,Faisalabad and Gujranwala,are very fertile.The irrigation facilities are available ,so the necessities of life can be had easily.The employment facilities in different industrial and commercial units are also available.That is why the population of rural area is migrating towards these Urban centres and their population is increasing very rapidly.
2.The areas situated in the plains are more densely populated than the mountain,regions,because the mountains having pugged topography are not suitable for agricultural activities.Besides,in winter, due to intense cold,snowfall is common and the mean of transportation become ineffective the establishment of industries not possible in these areas due to scarcity of resources.That these areas are thinly populated.
3.In the plains ,the density if population also differs in various regions.The areas of Punjab and Sindh there irrigation facilities and other resources are available,density of population is more than the dry Barani areas.Lahore,Faisalabad,Gujranwala,Multan districts are more dense than Attock,Jhelum and Dera Ghazi Khan districts.Similarly in Sindh,Hyderabad,Larkana,Nawabshah districts are more densely populated than Tharparkar,Thatta,Dadu and Sanghar Districts.
4.Those areas which are situated far away and where climate is intense,irrigation facilities are not available ,rain is meager and there is scarcity of resources,even the water for drinking purpose has to be brought from long distances,there density of populatBirth and Death Rates
Birth rate in Pakistan also figures highest in the World.In 1988 it stood at 41 per 100 persons.Factors responsible for the high birth rate in our country are :
(i) Climatic Conditions
(iv) Social Convention
(v) Psychology of the people
(vi) Economic Conditions and to marry in the early age and
(vii) Religious minded people.
Death rate in Pakistan ,particularly of women and infants is very high.In 1988 it stood at 11 per 100 persons.It is because of this factor that the average age in Pakistan is below 30 years.