Pakistan Studies


in 1947 a small air company,the Orient Airways,Operated in Pakistan.Two more companies quickly stand up namely the Pak-air Limited and Crescent Airways.By 1952 the two new companies were dissolved.The Orient Airways was too small to meet the growing needs of the country.Therefore,in April 1955,Pakistan International Airlines (PIA) is established by an ordinance.The Orient Airways was merged in the new company which now monopolizes air transport in Pakistan. 
The Pakistan International Airline has made a phenomenal progress since it Inception.It started its life with a fleet of 15 aircrafts,three super constellation ,two convairs and ten Dakutas.As on February 29,1992 Pia’s fleet comprised of 47 aircrafts of different types. 
The PIA services are available to some large cities like Karachi,Lahore, Islamabad, Peshawar, Faisalabad, Multan, Hyderabad,and Quetta.It also links small places which have transport difficulties like Gilgit ,Chitral,Skurdo,Pasni,Gwadar,Turbal and Jiwani and important historical places,Like Mohenjo Daro.In all PIA serves 35 domestic stations.It has wide links outside Pakistan.It connects many Europeon countries like U.K ,Germany,France,Italy,Russia etc.It goes to U.S.A.It connects most of the countries of the Middle East and a few African countries.It goes to India, Bangladesh, Singapore, Thailand, China, Hong Kong and Japan.In all PIA serves 43 International stations.The result of this expansion has been that the number of the passengers and Cargo handled by PIA has greatly increase in 1955-56 PIA carried 1.1 million passengers which was more than double in flye years time.In 1970-71 and 1971-72 ,There was a little set back because of political disturbances in East Pakistan and its eventual position in 1971.Since then the conditions have started to improve steadily.In ten years time the passenger traffic increased from 1.8 million (1970-71) to 6.5 million (1980-81).The increase was phenomenal rise took place in international traffic from 0.5 million in 1970-71 to 3.2 million in 1981-82.The progress in Cargo handled by PIA as equally glorious.In 1955-56 only 1,00 tons of cargo was carried that increased by about 7 times in five years (1959-60).In other ten years 1970-71 the increase was 3 times.In another ten years (198081),more than three times increase was registered. 
Karachi Airport of our country has gained the position of an International Airport. It is a stopping point for flights from Europe to Far East and Australia and also for flights from China to Africa.From Karachi there are connecting flights to various countries of Middle East.PIA’S network extends from Tokyo to Newyork and Toronto.In June,1991,Mashed in Iran as added as a new destination. 
In PIA,within a few years engineering facilities will be further developed and production facilities will be geared up to undertake manufacturing and repair work. 

2. Waterways


Rivers were the chief means of transportation in ancient times.That is why most of the ancient cities grew up along the courses and at the junctions of rivers.Today,only cheap,bulky and non-perishable goods are carried by rivers. 
Rivers are probably the cheapest means of transportation.Expenses such as those involved in the building of roads and railway tracks are avoided as the running cost of boats is low.When compared with that of engines and trains .In mountainous regions of our country ,timber wood is transported by means of rivers.There is insufficient water in our rivers all the year round for large boats to use them easily.The Indus carries sufficient water and is navigable from Attock to its delta which is about a distance of 960 miles.Different kinds of Items such as timber,grains,stones etc.,are transported from one place to another with the help of small boats.