Pakistan Studies

7. Marble

Usage:

It is mainly used as a building and decorative stone. 

Occurrence:

Pakistan exports marble manufactured items to a large number of countries around the world.In various parts of our country good quality marble in a wide range of colours is found. 

(a)Peshawar Division Deposits:

Good quality marble of white and various other colours in found at two places: 
a) Shahidmena area and 
b) Kumbela Knwar area. 

(b) Mardan District Deposits:

Best known deposits of marble,usually white and of uniform texture is found at two places : 
a) Gundari Tarko and 
b) Maneri. 

(c) Nowshera Area Deposits:

Pink coloured marble of low quality is found.Total reseves amount to 3.8 million cubic ft. 

(d) Quetta Area deposits:

Large deposits of green,yellow and white marble are found total reserves amount to 1,80,000 tonnes. 

Power Resources

Introduction

Energy is the essential need of the present age.Pakistan is selfsuffitient to the extent of about 67% of its energy supply.The rest is being met through imports,mainly of crude petroleum and deficit petroleum products.The following are the main power resources of our country: 

1.Coal 

2.Petroleum of Mineral Oil 

3.Natural Gas 

4.Hydro-Electric Power 

About 42 % of energy in Pakistan is obtained from oil,35% from Natural gas,12% from hydle power and 4% from coal. 

(A) COAL

Usage:

Coal is described as the mother of modern Industry.It is at the back of the rapid Industrial development of the great industrial powers which might not have been possible without its presence. 

Coal is unique among natural products in the number of uses to which it can be put.The main function of coal is to run the factories ,the locomotives and the steam ships.Supplying heat for domestic purposes is of secondary importance.Apart from these,coal tar,dyes,perfumes,colour films,sewing thread and typewriter ribbons are some of the 200,000 by products derived from coal. 

Occurrence

Coal Mines of the Punjab:

1.Salt Range Mines:

The coal found in these areas is of low quality.The main centres of coal in this area are Dandot and Pidh.Besides,some coal is also mined at Ara Katha,Chilaj,Pir Jahania etc.Reserves are estimated at 70 million tonnes. 

2.Makarwal Coal Mines:

These are second important coal mines of Baluchistan .The coal found here is of poor quality and reserves are small . 

3.Degari Coal Mines:

The coal found here is of low quality,having more ash and sulphur content.Reserves are estimated at 54 million tonnes. 

Besides the above mentioned coal mines .Some coal has also been discovered in other areas of Baluchistan such as Pir Ismail,Ziarat,Sinjidi and Kach,but extraction of coal has not been started from those places. 

Coal Mines Of Sindh:

1.Lakhara Coal Mines:

The coal found here is of inferior quality lignite and has a high moisture content.Reserves are about 22 million tonnes. 

2.Meting Jhimpir Coal Mines:

The seams of coal are thin and are of poor quality.Reserves are about 28 million tonnes. 

Besides coal has been discovered in other areas of Pakistan such as Cherat hills.Nowshera in N.W.F.P and at Kotli,Kuiratta,Dandili and Muzaffarabad in Azad Kashmir ,but due to inferior quality and small quantity,mining is uneconomical. 

Total Reserves:

Coal has been the traditional source of energy and its resources are estimated to the tune of 17.77 billion tonnes.