Pakistan Studies

Chighazi Magnitite Deposits:

Of various magnitudes have been discovered in Chigai District,near Dalbandin .Reserves of high grade ore (56 percent iron or more ) are estimated over 3 million tonnes and of low ore (25.38 percent iron) at 20 million tonnes. 

2. Chromite

Usage:

Chromium is used in the making of stainless steel ,high speed tools and precision instruments,dyes and in photography. 

Occurrence:

Pakistan leads the world in chromite production.Large deposits of chromite occur in the Muslimbagh area of the Zaob valley.Those are the best known of the chromite deposits in Pakistan and have been extensively exploited .Khanozai and Jang Torgarh are important mines .Other deposits are in Chagai and Kharan,where the total deposits amount to 10.000 tonnes. 
In addition to the above Peshawar division deposits amount to 14,000 tonnes. 

3. Copper

Usage:

Copper ranks next to iron in importance because of its many industrial uses.It was used for making coins and domestic utensils in the past.Now a days it is used in the manufacture of electric goods,telephone wires,refrigerators etc. 

Occurrence:

The deposits of copper have been found at Sandak and Amuri in Chaghai districts of Baluchistan.Sandak deposits are estimated to be 412 million tonnes.At present copper is not being extracted commercially in our country but it is hoped that in near future we shall be able to produce copper in sufficient quantity with foreign collaboration. 

4. Rock Salt and Brine

All the rock salt deposits in Pakistan occur in the salt range.The most important mines are: 

(a) Khewra Mines:

Khewra is the most extensively worked area with seams attaining thickness of as much as 18 metres.Present production is 220,000 tonnes a year. 

(b) Karcha Mines:

The mine has five seams,with a maximum thickness of 15 metres and produces 40.000-45,000 tonnes a year. 

(c) Kalabagh Mines:

The seams are irregular and contorted and production is about 12,000-16,000 tonnes a year. 

(d) Jatta,Bahadurkhel and Karak Salt Deposits:

Production from this area almost equals that of the Warcha mines.The reserves,however,are thought to be very large. 
Salt is also obtained from brine and salt.Lakes,but the amount obtained from these sources is relatively small compared with that of rock salt.Salt is harvested in the Tharparkar area of Sindh and obtained by evaprating sea-water at Mauripur,near Karachi,and along the Makran and Lasbela coasts large deposits of concentrated brine have been discovered at Dharyala near Khewra.Various chemicals and fertilizers may be manufactured from this brine. 

5. Gypsum

Usage:

Gypsum is also an important mineral of our country .It is used for the manufacturing of cement,plaster of paris, fertilizers and in various other industries.It is also used to regain the fertility of soil in water-logged and salinity areas. 

Occurrence:

Gypsum is in our country is found in a large quantity.Mianwali,Jhelum,Dera Ghazi Khan in Punjab,Quetta and Sibi in Baluchistan,Kohat in N.W.F.P are the main producers,but some quantity of Gypsum is also found in Bahawalpur (punjab) ,Dadu and Sanghar districts (in Sindh) ,Dera Ismail Khan in (N.W.F.P) 
The total reserves of Gypsum found in our country are estimated at about 350 million tonnes. 

6. Limestone

Usage:

Limestone is the chief raw material of lime ,cement,bleaching powder,glass,soap,paper,paints,steel etc. 

Occurrence:

Limestone deposits constilute a large part of the sedimentary rocks of Pakistan.Although limestone is wide spread,some areas have more concentrated deposits.These includes: 
1.In N.W.F.P: Kohat,Nowshera,Pezu and Mughal Kot. 
2.In Baluchistan: Loralal and Harnal. 
3.In Punjab: Salt Range,Zinda pir,Margalla Hills. 
4.In Sindh: Mango Pir,Marli Hills,Cape Monze,Rani Pir. 
Total annual production is about 3.5 million tonnes.