Pakistan Studies

Exports:

1989-90 – Rs. 5144 million 
1990-91 – Rs. 7846 million 
1991-92 – Rs. 7083 million 
(July-March) 

WHEAT (Food Crop)

Introduction

Wheat is the most popular food crop of Pakistan.Wheat being the staple diet of most of the people of Pakistan it dominates all crops in acreage and production .We use wheat and its products in a number of ways.It accounts for over 70 % of the gross cereals and over 36 % of the country’s acreage is devoted to wheat cultivation. 
Wheat is being cultivated in our country from ancient times.According to some experts wheat was first cultivated in the Indus Valley.Pakistan is the 4th largest producer of wheat in Asia and stands 11th in world production. 

Favourable Conditions For Its Growth

1. Temperature:

Wheat is essentially a temperate crop requiring moderate heat and moisture.In Pakistan it is a rain (winter) crop.It is cultivated in the month of October and November.The temperature then is between 50 degree and 60 degree F which is most suitable for wheat growth while it is harvested at the end of April or early in May when the temperature is between 80 degree F and 100 degree F.This high temperature helps in the ripening of the crop. 

2. Water:

For wheat cultivation,rain must come during the period of growth and sunny conditions should prevail at the time of ripening.Minimum rainfall required during the growing season is 20 “.Rainfall is no way should exceed 40 “.In Pakistan the average annual rainfall is less than 20 ” which is insufficient.Thus wheat is mostly grown by means of irrigation.Due to lack of irrigational facilities Baluchistan and Potwar plateau depend exclusively on rainfall.However the yield per acre of the rain fed fields is about half that of irrigated fields. 

3. Soil:

Wheat is known to grow on a varioty of soils but it does best in the well-drained clayey loams having plenty of humus.Hence the dark coloured chernozems of the temperate grasslands like that of Pakistan are the most suitable soils. 

Kinds of Wheat:

There are two main types of wheat: 

1.Vulgare or Sharbati:

It is widely cultivated and is prized for common bread. 

2.Durum:

It has local importance and is mostly used for making of Suji (Semolina) and Sewian (Vermicelli). 

Wheat Producing Centres of Pakistan:

Wheat is cultivated in all the four provinces of Pakistan.Punjab and Sindh provinces however rank at the top.The plain areas of Punjab and Sindh provinces have alluvial soil brought by River Indus and its tributaries.These rivers further increase the fertility of the soil by adding a number of organic and in-organic matters brought by them from various areas of our country .The plain areas of Punjab and Sindh provinces have insufficient rainfall.This deficiency has been made up by providing canals and other irrigational facilities.The temperate climate aids wheat production in Sindh and Punjab. 

1. Punjab:

The province of Punjab ranks at the top in the production of wheat.The upper indus plain accounts for 70 % of the total wheat of our country.Canal fed fields produce 2/3 and the rest comes from the rain fed fields.The main wheat growing divisions are : 
Sargodha,Faisalabad,Multan,Dera Ghazi Khan,Bahawalpur,Lahore,Sahiwal,Shaikhupura and Sialkot. 

2. Sindh:

The province of Sindh ranks second in wheat production.Kabul,Kurram and Gomal rivers have a substantial share in wheat acreage.Most of the lands devoted to wheat cultivation in the lower Indus Plains are located in the irrigated districts of Nawabshah,Hyderabad,Sukkur,Tharparkar and Khairpur.

3. N.W.F.P:

The North west Frontier province does not contribute much towards wheat production.In the canal irrigated areas of N.W.F.P Mardan,Peshawar and Bannu are famouse for wheat cultivation. 

Baluchistan:

Some wheat is also grown in the plateau areas and the valleys of the hilly regions of Baluchistan.On the Potwar Plateau there are large areas under wheat which depend entirely on rainfall. 

Average And Production

The following table shows area,production and yield per hectare of wheat during the last three years: 
Period…………………Area………………Production……………….Yield per Hectare 
…………………….(000 Hec)……………..(000 Ton)…………………….(kg) 
1989-90…………………7845…………………14316……………………….1825 
1990-91…………………7911…………………14565……………………….1841 
1991-92…………………7795…………………14657……………………….1880 
(provisional)