Pakistan Studies

The Upper Indus Plain

The Northern part of Indus Plain is known as Punjab (West and East)nthe greater portion of which lies in Pakistan .The level plain is largely made of fertile alluvium deposited by the river Indus and its rubutaries.Orly near Sargodha,Chiniot and Sangla,some old dry hills rise above the plain known as the Kirana hills. 

The land which lies between two rivers is known as “doab” .The Punjab plain is,therefore,divided into several doabs e.g.The Bari doab (land between Sutlej and Ravi),the Rechna doab (land between the Ravi and the Chenab),the Chaj doab (land between the Chenab and the Jhelum) and the Sindh Sagar doab (land between the Kirana Bar (in the middle of the Chaj doab). 

The land in the center of the doab rises to an elevated land called “bar” e.g,the Nili Bar (between the Sutlej and the Beas),the Ganji Bar (the old course of the beas and the Ravi),the Sandal Bar (in the middle of the Rechna Doab) and the Kirana Bar (in the middle of the Chaj Doab). 

The Sub Mountain plain area ,west of the indus known as “Derajat” is divided into the districts of Dera Ghazi Khan and Dera Ismail Khan. 

The annually flooded riverine area is called “Bet” and agriculturally is the most important area. 

The Lower Indus Plain

Below Mithonkot in Sindh, the Indus carries not only its own water but also that of its five big tributarfes..The river flows very slowly and the silt carried by it is largely deposil on its bed,there fore severe floods are experienced,but the soil is very fertile. 

The area is marked by ox-bow lakes locally called “Dhoros” and small salt lakes called “Dhands”. 

West of the Indus lies the high Kirtan prdment plain which slopes gently to the river.