Q:12 Write a note on Hemingway’s use of dialogues in conversational style.

Ans: Ernest Hemingway’s style is simple, straight forward and thought-provoking. A study of his dialogue reveals that this is the way people really speak. His several years in newspaper job make him to report facts crisply. When Hemingway was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature in 1954, the committee cited his powerful style forming mastery of the art of modern narration. Throughout the novel, we are struck by the down-to-earth conversations. By putting the raw language of everyday life into literature he has made a major contribution to writing in our times Hemingway is also a poet, which is an added quality. He is unquestionably a master literary craftsman. There is an obvious relation between his style and the characters and situations with which the author is concerned. The paragraph structure is characteristically based on a simple sequence. Hemingway is considered the master of dialogue which is simple, with an occasional emphasis and repetition. Instead of complex and difficult sentences he uses simple and compound sentences. (166)


Q:13 Explain the following extract.
I am not religious , he said, But I will say ten our fathers and ten Hail Marys that I should catch this fish, and I promise-to make a pilgrimage to the virgin of cobre if I catch him. That is a promise.
Or Write a note on Santiago’s faith in religion.OrThe old man as a religious person. Or Is Santiago a superstitious man? Or Is the old man a true charistian? Or Is the old man believer of Christianity? 1995-I,1996-I, 2001-S

Ans: Ernest Hemingway always writes with a purpose. In The Old Man and The Sea, he has stressed upon moral values in particular. Santiago is an embodiment of moral values which make him a true Christian and a morally sound person. He has the Christian virtues of compassion, humility and piety.
Santiago is a brave old fisherman man. He leads a life of contentment, piety, patience, sacrifice, simplicity, and resolution. He is a complete and devoted Christian. Among other moral values, one more prominent value is his love for religion. His faith in God and his love for Christ and Mary are his strongest weapons in his battle against the marlin and sharks in the sea. His faith in religion inspires him to fight with courage whenever he loses courage. Like a true religious man he declares that he does not consider himself a religious man in a true sense. Santiago is a humble man and is always aware of his limitations as an old and poor man. He promises to offer prayers for ten times that if he succeeds in catching the fish. He also promises to perform pilgrimage to the shrine of Virgin of Cobre after he has caught the fish. So, this attitude of Santiago shows his faith and love for religion. (211)


Q:14 But man is not made for defeat. A man can be destroyed but not defeated. Explain.

Ans: In his struggle with the marlin, Santiago does not lose heart or experience a feeling of helplessness or despair. After his victory over the marlin, he fights with the more dangerous sharks very courageously and boldly. They prove to be an even more formidable enemy than the Marlin. His utterance after he has killed the first shark acquires a great significance. But man is not made for defeathe said A man can be destroyed but not defeated. It is a universal message. The old man shows that man’s life is a struggle against powerful forces of nature and in this struggle man is always defeated. A man may be defeated, but he must not accept defeat. He must be determined and confident during his fight against life. He is beaten and destroyed, but he is not prepared to accept his defeat by the sharks, who are one of the indifferent and violent forces of Nature or universe. The old man says;
They beat me, Manolin
They truly beat me.The boy replies, He did not beat you. Not the fish.
The old man is defeated physically but he wins morally. 189