Alkanesare saturated hydrocarbons. They have general formula CnH2n+2.Each carbon atom forms four bonds and each hydrogen atom forms only one bond. So the simplest alkane molecule that is possible is CH4. It is called methane.
Preparations of Alkanes
- By Hydrogenation of alkenes and alkynes
Addition of hydrogen molecule across carbon-carbon multiple-bonds is called hydrogenation.
- By the reduction of alkyl halides
When an alkyl halide is treated with Zn inpresence of an aqueous acid, an alkane is produced. Usually aqueous solution of HCl or CH3COOH is used.