Fluoride dental effect
Dental caries (tooth decay) considered as first discovery that show relationship between tooth decay and fluoride, it was characterized by demineralization of teeth resulting mottling on tooth surface or enamel. The tooth development process is accompanied by more mineralization and loss of protein matrix. Fluoride exposure during development of enamel can disrupt the mineralization produce anomalously large gaps in its crystalline structure, high porosity and retention of protein matrix[i]. These cavities may be affected by bacterial infection leading to pulpal necrosis, disturbance in dental function or any other acute type dental infection. Strains of bacteria Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli are major etiological species can cause this disease[ii]. Sometime white striation in horizontal manner or chalky white discolourations appears on teeth of mild fluorosis victims[iii]. While in severe fluorosis forms these opaque patches become brown or yellow even sometimes turned black resulting increased tooth porosity[iv].
[i] Aoba T, Fejerskov O , Dental fluorosis: chemistry and biology. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 13(2):155–170,2002.
[ii] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Achievements in public health,1900–1999: Fluoridation of drinking water to prevent dental caries. Morbid. and Mortal. Weekly Rep. 48(41), 933–940, 1999a.
[iii] Susheela AK ,Treatise on fluorosis, 2nd edn. Fluorosis Research & Rural Development Foundation, Delhi, India,137 pp, 2003.
[iv] Rao NCR , Fluoride and environment—a review. In: Bunch MJV, Suresh M, Kumaran TV (eds) Proceedings of third international conference on environment and health. York University, Chennai, India, 2003.