|I||a. All above||II||(b) Be , because it is poly electron systm||III||(b) matter contained electrons|
|IV||(b) – Ze2/4π€r||V||(d) spin quantum number||VI||(d) 30|
|VII||(d) 662.5 nm||VIII||(c)||IX||(d) radius is 0.529 Å|
- a) How does Mosley’s Law help in the production of X-rays?
The mathematical form of Moseley’s law is √v = a (Z – b) Where a and b are constants for a particular metal.
This law states, “The frequency of a spectral line in an X-ray spectrum varies as the square of atomic number of the element emitting it. Thus by proper selection of target material desired X -rays can be produced”.
- b) Which quantum number is also called sub-shell quantum number?
Azimuthal quantum number tells about the shape of orbital or sub-shell therefore, it is called sub-shell quantum number. It is denoted by “l”. It has value from 0, 1, 2, 3 … (n – 1). The numbers 0, 1, 2, 3 … corresponds for
e.g. 0 stands for s-subshell ,1 stands for p- subshell, 2 stands for d- subshell, 3 stands for f- subshell
- c) What is the difference between an orbit and orbital?
|It is the circular path on which It is the region in space in which electron revolves around nucleus||It is the region in space in which probability of finding electron is maximum (about 95% )|
|This term is used in the Bohr’s theory of atomic structure and it is two dimensional||This term was coined by quantum mechanical model and it is three dimensional|
|Number of electrons in an orbit is Each orbital contains maximum given by the formula, 2n2||The orbital contains maximum two electrons|
- d) What is the relationship between?
- a) Energy and wavelength
The energy of radiation is inversely proportional to its wavelength
E=hc/λ Where E = Energy of radiation λ = wavelength of any light radiation h = Planck’s constant = 6.625 x 10-34 Js
- b) frequency and wavelength
Frequency is related to wavelength as
c=v/ λ Where or v=c/ λ
c = velocity of light = 3 x 108 ms-1 λ = wavelength of any light radiation
- e) What species are formed by the decay of neutron?
Free neutron decays into proton with the emission of electron and neutrino.
- f) Hydrogen atom and He+ are mono electronic system, but the size of He+ is much smaller than H, why?
Both, hydrogen atom and He+ ion have one electron in their outermost shell. However the nucleus of He+ has greater positive charge (due to two protons) than that of hydrogen atom (due to one proton). Therefore, nucleus of He+ attracts its electron more powerfully as compared to hydrogen. Hence, size of He becomes smaller than hydrogen.
- g) How the wavelength of moving particles is inversely proportional to its momentum?
The wavelength of particles is inversely proportional to its momentum.
λ =h / mv = h/p
Where p = mv = momentum of particle λ= wavelength of any light radiation h= Planck’s constant = 6.625 x 10-34 Js
- h) State Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle.
It is impossible to determine simultaneously and precisely, both position and momentum of a small fast moving particle e.g. electron.
- i) Why is 4s orbital lower in energy than 3d orbital?
According to (n+l)rule, the Energy of orbital is determined from the (n+l) value. Lower the (n+l) value lower will be the energy of orbital & vice versa.
|Orbital||n+ l Value||n value|| |
The energy value of 4s is lower than 3d
- j) Write electronic configuration of 25Mn2+, 30Zn2+, 24Cd3+, 13Al3+.
- k) What is (n+ l) rule?